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The human eye is able to distinguish an enormous variety of colors, by means of color vision, simplifying a system of three primary colors: red, green and blue. This system is formed through the types of cells (cones) present in the central retina; in the peripheral retina are the rods, capable of black and white vision. Within the alterations in color vision, there are congenital alterations and acquired alterations due to associated pathologies such as cataracts and degenerations.
In addition, we find diabetic retinopathy, optic neuritis, retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma; there are also those acquired by toxicity such as the consumption of drugs or toxic substances. It is necessary to mention that the vision of an object is produced when the nervous impulses originated by the photoreceptors of the retina reach the brain, among the most outstanding anomalies are the congenital differences that are irreversible and non-progressive.
In this sense, the child learns colors from 3 years of age and color blind children may have problems at school when the learning method is based on colors (preschool stage) but in general, they have a performance similar to that of children with normal vision. The agreed age for detection is 4 years old. Color vision is produced by the stimulation of different light wave stimuli on the cones. The human eye is able to perceive about 8000 colors and shades at a single level of illumination, while at all levels can reach up to 10 million shades.
Color vision helps us to remember objects and activates our emotions. But we must emphasize that objects do not have color, what it actually does is to reflect the wavelengths of light and it is the human brain that interprets them as colors. The visible spectrum for humans lies between violet and red light and it is estimated that humans can distinguish up to 10 million colors.
Thus, when light strikes an object, it absorbs some of the light and reflects the rest that enters the human eye through the cornea, the outermost part of the eye. The cornea bends the light towards the pupil which regulates the amount of light in the retina, the layer of nerve cells located at the back of the eye. From another perspective in the animal world, some birds, insects and fish also have 4 types of cones, which allow them to see ultraviolet light, wavelengths imperceptible to the human eye.
Color vision is a sensory attribute that provides an appreciation of differences in the composition of the wavelengths of light that stimulates the retina. Its examination allows the detection of congenital or acquired alterations of color vision, to evaluate the molecular integrity and to determine the attitude in the determination of colors.
Finally, an interesting aspect is that not all colors have the same hierarchy in terms of brain stimulation. The group of neurons responsible for processing the color red is much larger than that of other colors, followed by green, blue and yellow. In a simpler way of saying, the color red tends to capture our attention more easily than other colors. It should be clarified that in practice, brain estimation depends on a set of multisensory factors, beyond just one color. Sometimes the association of colors affects the perception of an entire society.
Did you know that the color that most attracts our vision is red?
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