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An optical illusion is an image that deceives the visual system, from the eye to the brain, and leads it to perceive reality in a distorted way. It can occur naturally or be created by specific visual effects. This is the result of the analysis of the information received from the visual system. This can be that an object that is not present is perceived, giving a distorted image of reality.
This is why the human visual system has a tendency to compensate for slow variations in brightness in order to perceive tones and colors in correspondence with its environment. It should be noted that this occurs when several shapes are presented in a single image and our brain conflicts. The senses filter information from the outside to be processed later, and modified in the brain. For example, diagonal lines create an illusion of perspective, so that our brain can orient itself in three-dimensional space.
In fact, we do not yet fully understand the process by which the brain combines all the information from perceptions of color, shape, motion and texture to generate a cohesive interpretation. But we know that the brain does not have enough capacity to handle all the information we receive through sight, so the mind is forced to take shortcuts, choosing the interpretation that seems most logical to it, which is why our eyes can deceive us.
In the same order of ideas, in many occasions the perception of color can be altered. This happens when there is an inaccurate interpretation of reality. When studying light and color, this type of interference must be taken into account. For this reason, the illusion is an image or representation without true reality, arising from the imagination or caused by deception of the senses. It can also be a dazzle due to an intense stimulus.
In this sense, we can find cognitive or philosophical illusions:
Cognitive: This error occurs by logical interpretation. Let's say it is a software error. For example, although in an image there are only 3 circles and 3 V angles, it gives the impression of seeing a triangle. Our brain creates the image to what seems more coherent. This occurs when the error is rather mathematical, as the brain makes a miscalculation of the depth.
Physiological: This error occurs because of physical ability. An example of this type of optical illusion are the so-called afterimages. These are the images that remain imprinted in our sight after observing a very luminous object or the adaptive stimulus in front of very contrasted changing patterns or, in short, as a consequence of an excess of visual stimulus (brightness, movement, color, flicker, among others).
To conclude, optical illusions are not subject to will and can vary from one person to another. Depending on factors such as visual acuity, campimetry, color blindness, astigmatism, among others. Understanding these phenomena is useful to understand the limitations of the human visual sense and the possibility of distortion or perspective of what is observed. Optical illusions physiologically occur during the connection of the right and left hemisphere of the brain; thanks to this we have the ability of perception.
Disclaimer: I would like to let you know that English is not my mother tongue, I may even make some mistakes in the elaboration of sentences in my posts. Feel free to correct me attentively. It will help me in my learning process.