Our story begins when the Red Army took Berlin in 1945 at the cost of the lives of 200,000 of its soldiers, they wanted the German capital as spoils of war, but the Western allies did not want to release it so easily and that would have dire consequences.
It is worth mentioning that Germany had a president, his name was Karl Donitz and he authorized the German troops to surrender on all fronts.
Other than that, no one recognized his government, and after a period of transition, Donitz and his supporters were arrested.
The allies took control of the government, but they also wanted to take control of their territory and that is why they divided it up.
In theory, the main purpose was to supervise demilitarization policies, supervise democratic elections, persecute Nazis, and a long etcetera, and at first Germany was going to be governed as a single entity, the problem is that nobody agreed.
In addition, the Americans and Soviets had a rivalry that grew every day, on the other hand, the French wanted to keep Germany weak and, to make a long story short, Germany was divided into 4 zones.
They were: The French, the English, the American and the Soviet zones, but the problem is that Berlin was the jewel in the crown and that is why the Solomonic decision was reached to also divide this city into 4 parts and up to here the thing seemed quiet.
But there was tension on the planet, Sir Winston Churchill said that the world was divided between two currents, an iron curtain separated the world, but that wall was ideological and nothing else.
That was the start of the cold war and Germany would be the synthesis of that division.
Over time the French, English and American sides would unite to form a new country: the Federal Republic of Germany, and in the east the Democratic Republic of Germany was created, a satellite state of the Soviet Union and there in the middle of that side Soviet, Berlin remained.
For almost 10 years things in Berlin were relatively calm, anyone could cross with relative ease from one side to the other, but life on both sides of the city was very different, some even worked on the capitalist side.
The Brandenburg Gate, one of the few monuments that survived the war was in the middle of the two blocks, and was a silent witness to the reconstruction of the city, by leaps and bounds in the capitalist block and slowly, very slowly on the eastern side .
For a whole decade the Soviet side lost followers, in fact they discovered that more professionals fled each year than the universities could train, the Americans thought that the Soviets were up to something, but the Russians denied it.
They never imagined that they planned to divide the city into two parts.In fact, that option was investigated by spies and journalists, but all the reports pointed out that it was impossible to divide a city, so the world was waiting for what the Soviets were up to.
And so, on the morning of Sunday, August 13, 1961, an effective secret operation covered the border between both sides with barbed wire and thousands of soldiers began patrolling the area where a wall of large concrete blocks would be erected in express time..
67 of the 81 border checkpoints were closed and by the time the Berliners woke up, they were already trapped, people were unable to cross again or see their friends or family, in fact the wall may never have been built but everyone took too long in reacting.
The Soviets thought that the people were going to revolt, that there would be riots and that many would escape, but nothing happened, the people were in shock, when they assimilated everything, it was too late, the fear of being prisoners in their own city would change them. forever.
The Soviets were concerned with how the Americans would react, but they seemed disinterested, in fact many political analysts and President John F. Kennedy himself initially admitted that such a solution was cruel but necessary to avoid war.
During the first hours of construction of the wall, many managed to flee, even soldiers when they saw that a wall was rising, they fled without thinking twice, the scene of the soldier who throws his rifle and decides to flee to the other side during the first few is very famous. of chaos.
But do not think that everyone was fleeing and already, in fact, there were many deaths, many of those who tried to cross were shot and that eventually caused many to stop trying to flee, the death of an 18-year-old student shocked everyone.
Peter Fechter tried to cross the wall but he was shot in the back, for hours he was screaming for help but no soldier from the area could come to rescue him because he was in an area where both armies could shoot at the soldiers on the other side.
When at last there was authorization to go for him, he was almost dead, everyone saw him and after him, there was a time when few dared to cross so as not to end the same, and at that time the wall was perfected, now it was more tall and strong and completely concrete.
The sewers were reinforced, the rivers were watched and by 1963 it was almost impossible to escape from the city, thousands of cubic meters of concrete and hundreds of watchtowers shot down anyone who tried to flee from one place to another.
Then there was another wall of up to 4 meters, that means that if someone tried to cross, they had to cross a wall, then go through an area where there were mines, traps and you were also an easy target for snipers, if you managed to cross all that, you had to cross another wall.
During the 1970s, East Germany was growing economically, professionals were no longer fleeing Berlin thanks to the wall and that is why they decided to improve it for the fourth time, now they were going to focus on making it more difficult to scale and more resistant to vehicle onslaught.
For 1986 the possibility of building another wall was considered, one planned for the year 2000, the millennium wall would have more technology and would be impassable.
But in a short time many things happened that led to the end of this sad story.
There is no specific cause to explain why the Soviet Union and the wall fell, but I will explain some causes that led to it.
Initially, the Soviet government at that time was quite inefficient and it could be said that even corrupt, in addition there was a crisis due to the war in Afghanistan and basically the entire arms race, and for that reason economic aid to the communist countries was interrupted.
The leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev made many mistakes, one of them underestimate Boris Yeltsin, who ended up being President of Russia, but that is another story, the point is that there were many factors that led to the fall of the wall.
Then Hungary opened its borders with Austria and many Germans were able to escape through that country, and by then things were already looking difficult for the President of East Germany, Erich Honecker, who resigned from the post amid protests and strikes.
He was replaced by Egon Krenz, who was forced to lift the ban on crossing the wall, the measure was gradually to be implemented from the next day, but at a press conference the GDR spokesman was confused and said that the measure applied immediately.
And everything turned into chaos, thousands of people gathered at the border crossing and began to hit the wall, on the night of November 9 and 10, 1989, the wall fell, no guard knew what was happening but nobody dared to shoot, everyone wanted to be free.
The communist bloc began to falter and in 1991 it collapsed, I will tell you later about the fall of the Soviet Union and how Germany became a power once again, (the so-called German miracle) but I tell you that even today the ravages of the wall exist.
Without going any further, until today people on the eastern side earn less, there is less work and the most important companies are on the other side.
And all because of a wall that in principle did not exist, there were only two different worldviews.
Sometimes when there are marches or some political event in a city, country or even with friends or family, we blind ourselves and defend our side of things to such a degree that we forget about the real underlying problem and focus on attacking the other.
It is important to remember that nothing is stronger than us, we can help, take care of ourselves and build a better world, but we have to stop fighting among ourselves and act, and if you do not act, do not criticize those who do, who were the ones who brought down the Berlin Wall.
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