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I decided to introduce you to the danger of venomous snake bites for two reasons: first, the biggest real danger that animals threaten you with during your stay in nature is snake bites (there is very little chance that you are in immediate danger from another wild animal) and if this accident happens to you, it is important that you be able to save your own or someone else's life with a quick intervention.
As a general rule, you are not in any danger from wild animals if you do not disturb them. All wild animals run away from humans and attack them only if they feel threatened! This means that you have directly encountered them, that they have cubs to defend, or that you have otherwise endangered their survival.
This is also true for snakes. They attack a person only out of fear, and only if you step on them! Snakes are very dangerous even in the mating season or while nurturing their young, but even then, if you retreat without sudden movements, they will not attack you. Protection against poison ivy bites requires no special measures but only caution! Take care not to walk barefoot and on the rocks. When picking stones, picking grapes, working or playing in an olive grove, field, etc. one should be constantly careful. The best prevention is to make noise when passing through thickets, through tall grass or forest: sing, talk loudly, pound with a stick, break the branches around you… All wild animals, even snakes, will get out of the way you are going. It's good to have boots with a thicker wall that snake teeth can't break through: leather, hiking, and even rubber boots can serve great. It is also good for your pants to be made of a firmer material. If the snake steps on it, it will instinctively turn around and bite its leg, most often at the height of its crotch. If you have boots on your feet then there will be no problem.
Snakes are, as is well known, reptiles. They are either non-toxic and completely harmless, or toxic and very dangerous.
Venomous snakes are difficult to distinguish from non-venomous ones in speed, but the basic thing is that venomous snakes have a pronounced triangular head (in non-venomous ones it is more ovoid) and a rather narrow neck, while in non-venomous ones this is not the case. They live on all meridians but there are many more in warmer regions. The most dangerous are poison ivy in the tropics. In South America and especially in India, tens of thousands of people die every year from the bites of poisonous snakes.
The group of dangerous venomous snakes consists of: the cobra, the East Indian spectacle and many other snakes from Africa, Australia and South America, which do not exist in Europe. But make no mistake, vipers live in Europe, which again do not exist in the tropics. Among these toxins, the most dangerous are: hopscotch and rockfish. Both species live in our region, and they differ from each other in the pattern on the back and on the head. The hinge was named after a dark, broken (zigzag) pattern on the back. It is thicker and larger than the hippopotamus. Hinges are usually found in wooded areas, while the hippopotamus is more often found on rocks, in warmer regions, at sea… The hippopotamus is a slightly smaller and thinner snake, but more dangerous and poisonous than the hinge. Like all venomous snakes, it has a very pronounced triangular head (seen from above) and a horn on its nose (no other snake has that).
The venomous apparatus in all venomous snakes is basically the same. It consists of two sharp and hollow teeth that are connected to two venomous glands. The location of the venomous glands depends on the type of snake, but most of them are located in the upper jaw. The glands secrete toxins that collect in sacs above the hollow teeth. The strength and amount of venom are different and depend on many factors: if the snake is full or if it has bitten several times in a row, the venom is weak and not enough, and if it is hungry or if it is in the sun for a long time, the venom is strong and abundant. .
Poisons are very mobile, they are not timid, they can swim and attack quickly. The bite is lightning fast. Two small, non-bleeding stab wounds were seen at the site of the bite. Soon a red ring appeared in that place, which became bluish, that is. the wound turned blue and swelling appeared. Somewhat later, numbness appears on that part of the body. Once it enters the bloodstream, the poison spreads throughout the body. The poisoned person feels shivering and weakness, dizziness occurs, his pulse speeds up and his breathing becomes increasingly difficult, he is pale, often vomits and has diarrhea, he loses consciousness. Later, cramps and complete insensitivity (coma) occur. If you do not react in time, paralysis of the respiratory center occurs and a little later the heart stops working.
It consists in the complete rest of the injured person. The bitten limb should be tied up, moderately tightened with a bandage just above the bite site, and immobilized. Occasionally (3-5 minutes) loosen the bandage because blood must circulate through the poisoned part of the body, ie from the veins to the heart. At the site of the bite, two cross incisions (letter "X") are made through the skin to a depth of 3-4 mm, and the wound is allowed to bleed. That way, most of the poison will come out with the blood. It is not recommended to suck the wound with the mouth, because even the smallest wound on the mouth or oral cavity, as well as a decayed tooth, is enough to poison the one who is trying to help! Incisions are made with a knife, razor or other sharp object whose blade is burned on a flame or wiped with alcohol. Give the victim as much liquid as possible: tea, coffee, fruit juices and other beverages, but not alcohol. Then he should be transferred to the nearest medical institution as soon as possible, where he will receive the serum against snake venom.