Human Immunodeficiency viruses belong to the family Retroviridae and the genus Lentivirus usually passes on a disease to humans. HIV-caused acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that leads to the failure of the immune system. When the immune system is compromised leads to lethal opportunistic infections and the thriving of cancer. The average survival time of HIV infection without treatment is expected to be 9 to 10 years, depending upon the subtype of HIV. In many cases, HIV is transmitted by sexual contact, and transfer or contact of blood, vaginal fluids, semen, and pre-ejaculate. Another non-sexual transmission of HIV during pregnancy is the mother's infection of their baby, exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid during childbirth, and through breastfeeding. In all body fluids, the virus particle and infected immune cell virus are both present in HIV. HIV exists in a different structures as compared to other retroviruses. It is a roughly spherical shape with a 120nm diameter. The Laboratory diagnostic includes the test for the diagnosis of HIV infection such as screening and confirmatory. These are the rapid test to give results as they are not diagnostic and confirmation needs by the confirmatory tests. The following screening and confirmatory tests such as:
· ELISA test, detects HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies by targeting antigen P24 in the capsid. Western blot is usually used as an antibody test to confirm the screening test such as ELISA.
· Quantitative PCR, which usually determined the viral loads in the patients, is done in most hospitals to confirm the screening test.
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