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Good morning my lovely readers! I believe we are ready for today? Many of my friends from other countries would be spending their day and should be in the afternoon/evening right now. It's the start of work for many of us especially a student like me.
In some years to come by God's grace, I would be a Psychologist because I still want to study for my Masters and learn more about Psychology. One of the theories I love most is what I want to talk about today which is the psychosocial theory of development. I can slowly explain this to your understanding and I really love it so much.
This theory was propounded by Erick Erickson. He was a German-American Psychologist. His main idea of this theory was that every individual faces conflict at each stages which may or may not be easily resolved.
Erickson emphasizes more on the social nature of human beings rather than sexual nature which Freud propounded.
There are eight stages of the psychosocial theory of development which I will be explaining in my own knowledge and understanding.
THE FIRST STAGE IS CALLED "TRUST VS MISTRUST"
This is the fundamental stage of development which starts between birth and one year of age. At this stage, the child solely depends on an adult for survival. The child knows that the adult which is the parent or guardian would provide everything for him or her. The child learns to trust the parent or adult for love, care, needs, safety etc. But when the child is deprived of all of these things and the adult cannot take care of him, he starts to lose trust (mistrust) in the adult.
THE SECOND STAGE IS CALLED "AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT"
This focuses on early childhood. At this stage, the child develops personal control and can do things on his own. Children wants to feel independence and they start to perform basic actions like knowing when to pee or take the potty so they don't pee on the floor. They can now decide which is sweet and bitter. When children aren't left to explore things on their own, they start doubting their ability and they feel ashamed.
THE THIRD STAGE IS CALLED "INITIATIVE VS GUILT"
This stage is from preschool years. Children begins to maintain or assert their powers and control in the environment. They involve themselves in different skills and want to explore things outside the world. They also want to lead others in doing different things, but children who are not able to explore their skills feel guilty and doubt in themselves.
THE FOURTH STAGE IS CALLED "INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY"
This focuses on children from ages 5-11 years. At this stage, children feels sense of competence in their skills. They develop sense of pride when they achieve success in their academics and are encouraged by their parents and teachers. Children who are not encouraged by parents or teachers feel inferior among others and affect their low self esteems.
THE FIFTH STAGE IS CALLED "IDENTITY VS CONFUSION"
This takes place during teenage years. At this stage, the teens start to identify themselves among their peers. They want to know who they are and their sense of personal identities is developed. When they are unable to find answers to who they are and what they want, they get confused.
THE SIXTH STAGE IS CALLED "INTIMACY VS ISOLATION"
The young adults at this stage start to be committed to close relationships, they develop intimacy with other people around them. They try to work out smooth and loving relationship with others and are successful in it. When young adults finds it difficult to make friends or associate with another, they feel sad and isolate themselves.
THE SEVENTH STAGE IS CALLED "GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION"
Generativity is the ability to create or reproduce according to the English Dictionary. At this stage, the adult wants to involve in actions like volunteering and also trying to help people so they can benefit from them. The adult wants to leave an impact and be helpful in the community. When an adult hasn't done anything in the world or to his or her family, he feels unproductive and uninvolved.
THE EIGHT STAGE IS CALLED "INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR"
This is the final stage of the development and this focuses on ages 60 years and above. At this stage, people will look back to see if they have lived a good life. They think of what they have done to contribute to the world and at this moment, they feel their integrity was maintained. But when an adult looks back and found out that he didn't live the best life or leave the best legacy behind, they regret their lives. Despair and depression comes in.
I hope I have lectured us this morning? Thanks for reading.
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