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Determination of Physical Properties of AB materials (Mass, Volume, Density and Porosity)

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METHODOLOGY

 

I.                   Materials and Instruments

            Available instruments and simple tools were utilized to conduct and record measurements. Table 1 shows the list of the materials, equipment and hand-held measuring tools and instruments used in conducting the activity.

 

Table 1. Instruments and materials used in the performance evaluation of the physical properties.

I.                   Determination of Physical Properties of AB Materials- Mass, Volume, Density and Porosity

Selected physical properties of the test materials were determined by direct measurements such as: (a) Mass, Apparent Volume and Bulk Volume; (b) Apparent Density; (c) Bulk density and specific gravity ; and  (e) Bulk Porosity.

A.    Determination of Mass and Apparent Volume

Mass was measured using a weighing scale. Apparent volume was measured using the following methods; the Volumetric Displacement method (Water Displacement Method and Solid Displacement Method) and Dimension method.

Water Displacement Method

Using a graduated cylinder, the immersion liquid is used to measure the volume displacement caused by the sample inside the container. Weigh the desired quantity of the test samples using a weighing scale to get the mass. Table 2 shows the list of mass acquired using a weighing scale. Next is by conducting the water displacement method by using a graduated cylinder and water. Fill the graduated cylinder with enough water to completely immerse the desired quantity. Record the baseline initial measurement of the water then drop the sample. Lastly, record the final measurement and subtract the initial volume from the final volume to acquire the volume (Volume of the sample = Final water level - Initial water level). Sinkers are used in testing type 2 test materials for the samples to fully immerse on the liquid. The volume of the sinker used is 5cc subtracted to the final volume to acquire the apparent volume.  The volume of the fluid displaced can then be measured, and from this, the volume of the immersed object can be deduced (the volume of the immersed object will be exactly equal to the volume of the displaced fluid). Table 3 shows the list of volumes acquired using LDM.

Table 2.  Mass of AB Materials

Table 3. Volumes acquired using LDM.

Note: Sinker was used in testing Type 2 samples. The volume of sinker used is 5cc subtracted to the final volume to acquire the apparent volume.

Solid Displacement Method

The bulk density of rice is measured by evenly filling the graduated cylinder with a defined volume by tapping and smoothing the surface with a ruler. Both measurements are taken before the constant weight is reached for successive measurements. From the estimated weight of the rice and the volume of the container, the rice densities are determined. The samples and rice are then put in the graduated cylinder together. The graduated cylinder is tapped and a ruler is used to smooth the surface. Tapping and smoothing are continued until, across three consecutive measures, a constant weight is obtained. The sample volume is estimated using the given formulae:

Wseeds = Wtotal − Wsample − Wcontainer

Vseeds = Wseeds / ρseeds

Vsample = Vcontainer – Vseeds

 

where

W = weight (kg),

V = volume (m3),

ρ = density (kg/m3).

Table 4 shows the list of volumes acquired using SDM.

Table 4. Volumes acquired using SDM.

Dimension method

The apparent density of a shape of regular geometry was determined from the volume calculated from the characteristic dimensions and mass. This method is only used for measuring the dimensions of calamansi and tomato. The sample volume is estimated using the given formula:

Where:

V= Volume of the sample material

r= Radius

The result summary of the Volume of Calamansi and Tomato using the Dimension Method presented in Table 5.

.

Table 5. Volume of Calamansi and Tomato using dimension method

B.    Determination of Apparent Density

Apparent density is the density of a substance including all pores within the material (internal pores). Apparent density of regular geometries can be determined from the volume calculated using the characteristic dimensions and mass measured. Apparent density of irregularly shaped samples may be determined by solid or liquid displacement methods.  It was obtained using the formula:

                                                 

where:

m is the weight of the test sample, kg

V is the volume of the test sample (m)

 The result summary of the apparent density of the test materials using LDM are presented in Table 6. Apparent Density of the test materials using SDM is presented in Table 7.

Table 6. Apparent Density of the test materials using LDM

Table 7. Apparent Density of the test materials using SDM

C.    Determination of Bulk Density and Specific Gravity

Bulk density (BD) pertains to the ratio of the weight of the samples to its volume. It was obtained using the formula:

BD=W/V

where:

W is the weight of the test sample, kg

V is the volume of the test sample (m)

Specific gravity ( ). It is the ratio of the bulk density to the density of water which is 1g/cc and it is dimensionless.

where:

BD is the bulk density (kg

is the density of water (kg m-3)

The result summary of the apparent density of the test materials are presented in Table 8.

Table 8. Bulk Density and Specific Gravity of the test materials

Note: The density of water is 1g/cc and density of rice is 1.45g/cc

D.    Determination of Bulk Porosity

Bulk porosity (εB) is the volume fraction of voids outside the boundary of individual materials when packed or stacked as bulk. It was obtained using the formula:

Where:

                        εB=Bulk porosity

                        = Bulk density

                        =Particle Density

The result summary of the apparent density of the test materials using LDM are presented in Table 8.Bulk Density of the test materials using SDM are presented in Table 9.

Table 8. Bulk Porosity of the test materials using LDM

Table 9. Bulk Porosity of the test materials using SDM

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results obtained from the physical characteristics tests of a variety of AB materials characterized as Type 1: Heavier than water and Type 2: Lighter than water were analyzed and discussed using two methods-- the Liquid Displacement Method and Solid Displacement Method.

The result summary of the physical properties of AB Materials such as Mass, Volume, Density and Porosity using LDM are presented in Table 10.

 

Table 10. Physical Properties of AB Materials using Liquid Displacement Method

The table above displays the tabulated findings for the physical properties of potatoes, calamansi, tomatoes and onions using the liquid displacement method. Type 1 (heavier than water) test materials are Potato and Calamansi. The potato has a weight of 80 grams have an apparent volume of 70 cc, an apparent density of 1.14 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.675. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 240 g has a bulk volume of 355.56 cc, a bulk density of 0.0.675 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 41%. Calamansi with a weight of 10 grams have an apparent volume of 8.3 cc, an apparent density of 1.16 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.41. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 30 g has a bulk volume of 73.17 cc, a bulk density of 0.41 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 64.65%.

Type 2 (lighter than water) test materials are Onion and Tomato. The onion has a weight of 21.33 grams have an apparent volume of 22.3 cc, an apparent density of 0.95 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.55. The greater quantity of the sample onion with a bulk weight of 64 g has a bulk volume of 116.36 cc, a bulk density of 0.55 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 42.11%. Tomato with a weight of 29.67 grams has an apparent volume of 45cc, an apparent density of 0.66 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.525. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 89 g has a bulk volume of 169.52 cc, a bulk density of 0.525 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 20.45%.

The result summary of the physical properties of AB Materials such as Mass, Volume, Density and Porosity using SDM are presented in Table 11.

 

Table 11. Physical Properties of AB Materials using Solid Displacement Method

The table above displays the tabulated findings for the physical properties of potatoes, calamansi, tomatoes and onions using the solid displacement method. Type 1 (heavier than water) test materials are Potato and Calamansi. The potato has a weight of 80 grams have an apparent volume of 71.67 cc, an apparent density of 1.09 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.47. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 240 g has a bulk volume of 355.56 cc, a bulk density of 0.0.675 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 38%. Calamansi with a weight of 10 grams have an apparent volume of 8.67 cc, an apparent density of 1.16 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.28. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 30 g has a bulk volume of 73.17 cc, a bulk density of 0.41 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 64.65%.

Type 2 (lighter than water) test materials are Onion and Tomato. The onion has a weight of 21.33 grams have an apparent volume of 24 cc, an apparent density of 0.88 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.55. The greater quantity of the sample onion with a bulk weight of 64 g has a bulk volume of 116.36 cc, a bulk density of 0.55 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 64.65%. Tomato with a weight of 29.67 grams has an apparent volume of 45cc, an apparent density of 0.66 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.525. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 89 g has a bulk volume of 169.52 cc, a bulk density of 0.525 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 20.45%.

Evaluation of the Physical Characteristics

Apparent Volume

As shown in table 10 and 11, the apparent Volume of potato acquired using SDM is 1.67 cc greater than volume acquired using LDM having a mean of 70.83 cc, standard deviation of 0.88cc and average deviation of 83.5%. The apparent Volume of calamansi acquired using SDM is 0.37 cc greater than volume acquired using LDM having a mean of 8.49 cc. The apparent Volume of onion acquired using SDM is 1.7 cc greater than volume acquired using LDM having a mean of 23.15 cc. The apparent Volume of tomato acquired using SDM and LDM are the same.

Apparent Density

            As shown in table 10 and 11, the apparent density of potato acquired using SDM is 0.05 g/cc greater than density acquired using LDM having a mean of 1.12 g/cc. Apparent density of calamansi acquired using SDM and LDM are the same. The apparent density of onion acquired using LDM is 0.7 cc greater than density acquired using SDM having a mean of 0.92g/ cc. The apparent Volume of tomato acquired using SDM and LDM are the same.

Bulk Volume and Bulk Density

            Data acquired for Bulk volume and Density for the test materials using both SDM and LDM are similar.

 

 

Specific Gravity

            The density of the liquid using LDM is 1g/cc while the density of rice using SDM is 1.45 g/cc. As shown in table 10 and 11, the specific gravity of potato acquired using LDM is 0.205 greater than SG acquired using LDM having a mean of 0.573. The apparent Volume of calamansi acquired using LDM is 0.13 greater than SG acquired using LDM having a mean of 0.345 cc. The apparent Volume of onion acquired using LDM is 0.17 greater than SG acquired using LDM having a mean of 0.47. The apparent Volume of tomato acquired using LDM is 0.17 greater than SG using SDM having a mean of 0.445.

Bulk Porosity

As shown in table 10 and 11, the bulk porosity of potato acquired using LDM is 3% greater than Bulk porosity acquired using SDM having a mean of 39.5%. The bulk porosity of calamansi acquired using LDM and LDM are both 64.65%. Bulk porosity of onion acquired using LDM is 4.61% greater than bulk porosity acquired using SDM having a mean of 39.81%. The bulk porosity of tomato acquired using LDM and SDM have a value of 20.45%.

 

It is vital to be precise in calculating the data in order to evaluate the volume of the sample such that you have a correct test. The most critical data to record is the volume since volume plays a vital role is acquiring other physical properties.

The findings reveal that calculations of the volume density and porosity of the potatoes, calamansi, tomatoes and onions have a significant disparity when measured between the liquid displacement method and the solid displacement method. The method of liquid displacement is an effective method of volume estimation which has been proved by the Archimedes theorem.

The solid displacement method has much greater data calculated compared to the liquid displacement method. This shows that sand as a solid sample to be weighed in a solid displacement system is not advisable to be used, provided that it is not as fine as anything that can fully fill the container with the sample with minimal pore, particularly when evaluating the amount. Comparing the two techniques when it comes to calculating the volume of a sample, it can be found that the process of water displacement is more effective. In the course of calculating the quantities by liquid, you will easily see that the liquid fills all the spaces without reserves, unlike rice, which has a number of pores within, which would influence the data of the samples.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 

Summary

This activity aimed to determine the physical properties of AB materials mass, volume, density and porosity. The physical characteristics of the test materials were evaluated in terms of Mass (g), Apparent Volume (cc) and Bulk Volume (cc); Apparent Density ( ); Bulk density ( ) and specific gravity (SG) ; and  Bulk Porosity (%).

Type 1 (heavier than water) test materials are Potato and Calamansi. The potato has a weight of 80 grams have an apparent volume of 71.67 cc, an apparent density of 1.09 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.47. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 240 g has a bulk volume of 355.56 cc, a bulk density of 0.0.675 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 38%. Calamansi with a weight of 10 grams have an apparent volume of 8.67 cc, an apparent density of 1.16 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.28. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 30 g has a bulk volume of 73.17 cc, a bulk density of 0.41 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 64.65%.

Type 2 (lighter than water) test materials are Onion and Tomato. The onion has a weight of 21.33 grams have an apparent volume of 24 cc, an apparent density of 0.88 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.55. The greater quantity of the sample onion with a bulk weight of 64 g has a bulk volume of 116.36 cc, a bulk density of 0.55 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 64.65%. Tomato with a weight of 29.67 grams has an apparent volume of 45cc, an apparent density of 0.66 g / cc and a specific gravity of 0.525. The greater quantity of the sample potato with a bulk weight of 89 g has a bulk volume of 169.52 cc, a bulk density of 0.525 g / cc and a bulk porosity of 20.45%.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the most accurate technique used to determine the physical properties of the materials is the Liquid Displacement Technique, where the quantity of fluid displaced is closely proportional to its volume relative to the use of the Solid Displacement Method, provided that it is not as fine as one that would absolutely fill the container with the sample. In evaluating the volume of the sample for two techniques, certain drawbacks that can influence the effects of the measurements have been found, first, that the use of larger samples, along with water or rice, can overflow the graduated cylinder, may not reach the highest volume calibrated in the graduated cylinder. Often, in the solid displacement process, use a finer substance that fills the graduated cylinder entirely than sand to provide precise measurements.

The various physical properties of the solution are interrelated as observed on the conduct of laboratory exercise. It was proven that apparent densities of type 1 materials are less dense than 1 g/cc which is the density of liquid. The apparent densities of type 2 material are greater than water density. It was also observed that bulk density is less dense that the apparent density.

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Comments

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