The Spanish Colonization that lasted for 3 Centuries (Part 7)

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3 years ago

Down to the last 5 revolts during the Spanish colonization in the Philippines.

Basi Revolt (1807)

Known as the Ambaristo Revolt, led by Pedro Mateo & Salargo Ambaristo. This revolt was very unique, and it is for the Ilocano's love for basi. In 1786, the colonial government expropriated the manufacture and sale of basi (sugarcane wine) effectively banning private manufacturers of the wine, which was done before expropriation.

The Ilocanos were forced to buy from stores under control by the government, as they rose up and the revolt started on September 16, 1807, with the revolt spreading to nearby towns and clashes lasted for weeks. The revolt ended on September 28, 1807, with heavy casualties on the losing side.

Novales Revolt (1823)

Led by Andres Novales who grew discontented with the Spanish authorities of how they treat the Criollo people. His discontentment climaxed when peninsulares were shipped to the Philippines to replace Criollo officers. He sympathized with many of the Criollos. As punishment for the rising sense of discontentment, many officers and public officials were exiled.

Andres was exiled to Mindanao to fight the Moros. However, on June 1, 1823, Andres along with a sub-lieutenant Ruiz, and other subordinates in the King's Regiment, went out to start a revolt. From a small squadron, they recruited 800 indigenous natives as they took control of the Palacio del Gobernador (Royal Palace), the Manila Cathedral, the cabildo (City Hall), and other important key buildings in Intramuros, Manila.

They tried to find Governor-General Juan Antonio Martinez, but they killed the Lieutenant Governor and former Governor-General, Mariano Fernandez de Folgueras, who suggested replacing Creole officers with peninsulares. Following his death, the townspeople followed Andres and his troops as they went to seize Fort Santiago but eventually failed because Andres' brother Mariano, commands the fort and refuses to open the gates.

Fort Santiago, Intramuros, Manila

Soldiers rushed to the fort upon learning that it was still holding out against the rebels. Andres was caught hiding under the Puerta Real. On June 2, 1823, Andres and his co-conspirators were executed by musketry in a garden near Puerta del Postigo. In his last minutes, Andres declared that he and his brothers set an example of fighting for freedom.

Palmero Conspiracy (1828)

This was a failed plot to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines, but they suppressed further details on this conspiracy. Led by the Palmeros, one of them was Marcelo Azcarraga Palmero, when the government discovered the plan, they thought it will be wise not to report this to the general public.

The plot itself would embarrass the government since the conspirators were one of their own, and it would seem that the Spanish would want to overthrow the power of Spain in the country. The main conspirators were exiled.

Pule Revolt (1840-1841)

Another religious revolt, and one of the most famous revolts in Filipino History. Led by Apolinario de la Cruz, nicknamed Hermano Pule (Brother Pule). He started his religious order called Confradia de San Jose (Confraternity of Saint Joseph) in June 1840. Due to the influence of Spanish religious power and authority of different religious orders (the Augustinians, Jesuits, and Franciscans) and the concept that Filipino priests should remain in the church, and not the convent.

Apolinario "Hermano Pule" de la Cruz, leader of the Pule Revolt

The Spanish banned the new order, especially due to its deviation from original Catholic Rituals and teachings, such as prayers and rituals which inculcated paganic practices. Thousands of people from Batangas to Manila have already joined the order. So with this, the government send troops to suppress the order, forcing Pule and his followers to take arms.

Many battles were fought between the Spaniards and Pule's religious order. The Spaniards won, and Hermano Pule was executed on November 4, 1841.

Cavite Mutiny: The Rise of Filipino Nationalism

Sgt. Fernando La Madrid, leader of the Cavite Mutiny of 1872

The last revolt during the Spanish Colonization in the Philippines, but made a big impact after the execution of the three Filipino martyrs: Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora - also known as the Gomburza.

It all started when Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre was replaced by Rafael Izquierdo in 1871. He disliked the reforms created by the previous Governor-General, then reduced the benefits enjoyed by the Guardia Civil. Workers, laborers, and soldiers were not getting paid and required to pay a monetary sum, even perform forced labor.

Sgt. Fernando La Madrid and 200 soldiers, including laborers under his command, marched to Fort San Felipe, Cavite on January 20, 1872. They seized the fort, until it reached the Governor-General as he sent a regiment to take down the mutineers, dead or alive. Sgt. La Madrid was killed, others disarmed their weapons and surrendered to the authorities.

What happened after the Cavite Mutiny?

29 revolts, most of them were against the new religion at that time. Others were against the system of how they were treated by the Spanish government. One was very unique, and the other took 85 years to clash with the Spaniards. The Philippines is a Muslim country, but diverse in different ethnicities and religions at that time.

From Hinduism to Buddhism, even our own pagan beliefs then, but the Spaniards did everything to make the whole country Christianized for the last 500 years, except for our brothers and sisters in Mindanao remained faithful to Islam. I'm not against with Muslims, and I respect their way of life after my point of view changed since they were referenced in popular culture as the bad guys.

The Filipino Martyrs, Gomburza, were pinpointed by the colonial government, as the masterminds of the mutiny. It is believed that the mutiny was a well-planned conspiracy to dissolute Spanish Sovereignty in the Philippines, but they are not involved in that event. They even knew each other the moment they would become servants of Catholicism.

The Filipino Martyrs: Gomburza

The military tribunal bribed a witness to testify against the priests and was charged with treason and sedition. The Filipino priests were publicly executed by garrote at Bagumbayan (now Luneta Park), Manila on February 17, 1872. Their deaths lead to an explosion, like a powder keg. As Illustrados, wealthy businessmen, and noblemen were exiled while studying in Europe.

From a propagandist group to creating novels in memoriam to the martyrdom of Gomburza that would trigger the Spanish government, Dr. Jose Rizal, the author of Noli Me Tangere (Touch me not) & El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed), was branded as an enemy of the state.

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