The Spanish Colonization that lasted for 3 Centuries (Part 6)

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3 years ago

As the list goes on, this is a continuation of the list of Philippine Revolts against Spain.

Ladia Revolt

A Moro-Bornean, and a self-claimed descendant of Lakan Dula named Ladia, came to Malolos in 1643. His land was confiscated by the Spaniards and he thought it's about time to stage an uprising and declare himself as the King of the Tagalogs. Despite that a priest tried to convince him not to pursue his plans. He was captured, then executed in Manila.

Sumuroy Revolt (1649-1650)

In Northern Samar, in the town of Palapag. A Waray named Agustin Sumuroy, and his followers rose to arms on June 1, 1649, over the forced labor system being undertaken in Samar. The government issued all natives not be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do forced labor.

Under orders from various alcaldes (mayors), the Warays were sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their forced labor, which sparked the revolt. The parish priest of Palapag was murdered, and it eventually spread to Mindanao and Visayas. A rebel government was successfully established in the mountains of Samar.

Agustin Sumuroy was captured after their defeat, and executed in June 1650. David Dula, his co-conspirator continued to fight against the empire. Several years later, he was wounded, captured, and executed along with his seven lieutenants in Palapag, Northern Samar.

Maniago Revolt (1660-1661)

Named after its leader, Francisco Maniago. An uprising in Pampanga, and drew most of the attention from the Spanish religious orders because of its relative wealth. They also bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. They worked for eight months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their rewards.

This sparked their revolt by setting their campsite on fire, it was a much bigger and even bloodier revolt. After hearing news of a Kapampangan chief siding with the Spaniards, Maniago and his forces arranged a meeting with Governor-General Sabiniano Manrique de Lara which they gave their conditions to end their rebellion. Satisfied with the conditions of the agreement, de Lara accepted their demands after Maniago and his forces stepped down the rebellion.

Malong Revolt (1660-1661)

Andres Malong, a maestro de campo (field teacher) of Binalatongan (now San Carlos City), Pangasinan. Started his campaign in a small town called Malunguey, but failed. He led the people of Pangasinan to rise against the Spanish. It spread like wildfire, and of his success, he proclaimed himself the King of Pangasinan.

Almazan Revolt of 1661

With the influence of the Malong Revolt, the people of Ilocos Norte took arms against the empire and were led by Pedro Almazan, an illustrious and wealthy leader. He receives a letter from Andres Malong, narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to obtain any support among the natives.

Pedro Alamazan proclaimed himself as the King of Ilocos, but he was captured, then executed.

The Chinese Revolt of 1662

The Spanish feared an invasion from the Chinese led by a pirate named Koxinga, the garrisons around Manila were reinforced. An increasing anti-Chinese groups grew within the population. In the end, the invasion did not go through, but many locals massacred hundreds of Chinese in Manila.

Panay Revolt of 1663

A religious revolt led by Tapar, a native of the island of Panay who wants to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted followers with his stories about his frequent conversations with a devil. Tapar, and his men died in a clash against the Spaniards. Their corpses were impaled on stakes.

Zambal Revolt (1681-1683)

A group of local leaders from Zambales refused to accept the authority of the Spanish and staged a revolt. The empire was very swift, as they sent an expeditionary force of 6,000 soldiers to suppress the uprising. 2 years later, the Spaniards placed the entire area and all chieftains of Zambales who participated in the revolt were executed.

Agrarian Revolt of 1745

Between the years 1745 and 1746, in the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, and Bulacan. Indigenous landowners took arms over the land grabbing of Catholic religious orders, with native landowners demanding that Spanish priests return their lands based on their ancestral domain.

It resulted in numerous riots, massive looting of convents, churches, and ranches burned to the ground. An investigation was organized by the Spaniards and was even heard in the court of Ferdinand VI, in which he told the priests to return the lands they've captured. The priests were able to appeal the return of lands back to the natives, resulting in no land being returned to native landowners.

Dagohoy Revolt (1744-1829)

One of the longest revolts ever recorded in Filipino History. The Boholanos who participated in this revolt took them 85 years to rebel against the Spaniards as they experienced the same things as they did to the 8 provinces of Luzon: oppression, forced labor, tax collection, and injustices.

Unlike the Tamblot Revolt which was a religious revolt. This was a revolt against a church tradition, when Francisco Dagohoy's brother and constable, Sagarino Dagohoy was sent by Padre Gaspar Morales to arrest a man who abandoned his faith. Sagarino was dead, then Francisco brought his corpse for proper burial, but the priest refused to bury the constable.

It was prohibited by the church since it was a duel between the constable and the man who escaped his faith. Anger, and Infuriated at the priest. Francisco wants revenge which ignites this revolt. It started on January 24, 1744, as they took down Giuseppe Lamberti at Jagna, Bohol, and Francisco took down Morales afterward.

It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty Governors-General tried to suppress this revolt, but Francisco died two years before the revolt ended in 1829. 19,420 survived but were pardoned by Governor-General Ricafort and they were allowed to live in their new villages.

Silang Revolt (1762-1763)

One of the most famous revolts in Filipino History that took place during the British Occupation of Manila. Led by Diego & Gabriela Silang.  On December 14, 1762, Diego declared Ilocos as an independent state and proclaimed Vigan as the capital of the newly independent state. The Brits heard about this revolt and asked for their assistance in fighting the Spanish.

Diego was killed on May 28, 1763, but Gabriela continued her husband's struggle Through her many victories in battle, she earned the title Joan of Arc of Ilocos. The revolt ended with the defeat of the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed on September 10, 1763.

Palaris Revolt (1762-1764)

Led by a nickname, Palaris, along with his co-conspirators Colet, Andres Lopez, and Juan de Vera Oncantin. During the Seven Years' War, the principalia of Binalatongan protested the abuses committed by the provincial governor. The town leaders demanded that the governor should be removed and the colonial government stop collecting taxes since the land was already under the Brits at that time.
Governor-General Simon de Anda dismissed the demands and the revolt started in November 1762. All officials, except the Dominican friars who were in charge of the missionary, had left Pangasinan. The colonial government needs to apprehend the British and the Silang Revolt in Ilocos Norte.

On March 1, 1763, at the Battle of Agno he faced the Spanish forces under the command of Alfonso de Arayat, but withdrew after losing casualties on his side. The Pangasinenese took over all functions and controlled the province up to the Agno River, which borders their neighboring province Pampanga in the south. Palaris commanded 10,000 men, and also kept in touch with Diego Silang who has bigger plans against the Spanish

The Seven Years' War ended on February 10, 1763, followed by the signing of the Treaty of Paris. 3 months later, Diego Silang was assassinated by Miguel Vicos on May 28, 1763. The Spanish were able to focus on the uprising and to surround Palaris. The Dominican friars were allowed to stay in the province and started a campaign to persuade the residents of Pangasinan of the futility of the Palaris Revolt.

In March 1764, most of the province had already fallen. Palaris had no other ways to escape, except through the Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea (now Western Philippine Sea). He stayed in the province and hid among his supporters. His presence terrified his protectors and Simeona, his sister who was threatened by the friars, betrayed when he was arrested on January 16, 1765.

Palaris was brought to the provincial capital of Lingayen for trial. He confessed to being the leader of this revolt. On February 26, 1765, he was sentenced to death by hanging.

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The Spanish colonization that spanned three centuries holds a significant place in history. It is a period that deeply shaped the cultural, social, and political landscapes of various regions around the world and also use site there. The impact of Spanish colonization can still be felt today, with and influences ranging from language and religion to architecture and cuisine. Let's use this opportunity to foster dialogue, promote inclusivity, and learn from the lessons of the past. History serves as a valuable teacher, and by examining the Spanish colonization, we can better shape a more inclusive and equitable future.

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