American open fires! The beginning of the Filipino-American War

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Before anything else, here are my previous articles relating to Filipino history below, and my movie review of the historical epic film Heneral Luna.

After Spain's colonization for 3 centuries, they sold the country to the United States of America. The Philippines was about to be independent until the country's fate is upon the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo's cabinet debating what will be their next move to Intramuros. Buencamino & Arguelles were sent for peace talks to Maj. Gen. Otis, but both officials failed with the negotiations as they quickly returned to Malolos, Bulacan.

The moment Aguinaldo received a letter, it was devastating news. The year was 1899. 8:00 pm. Pvt. William W. Grayson with two members of his patrol of the 1st Nebraska Volunteer Infantry Regiment entered Barrio Santol in Sampaloc, Manila as they observe another patrol coming in from the other side. Upon seeing the patrol, they shouted "Halt!" when the Filipinos walked a few more steps the American fires his rifle taking down a lieutenant and another soldier. This marked the beginning of the Filipino-American War.

Following the incident, the Americans invaded the City of San Juan, other towns of Manila - Santa Mesa, Paco, Pandacan, and other neighboring cities. As for Gen. Antonio Luna - Commandant General of the Philippines and his trusted officers fight until their last breath but was assassinated by the Kawit Battalion on June 5, 1899. Gen. Gregorio Del Pilar bravely holds the line at Tirad Pass so Aguinaldo and the rest of his men will retreat, but taken down by a sniper on December 2, 1899. On March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo was captured in Palanan, Isabela. The war officially ended on July 2, 1902, as the cabinet members of the 1st Filipino Republic were exiled. Apolinario Mabini was sent to Guam, during his exile he wrote a book titled La Revolucion Filipina (The Philippine Revolution) where it tells the failed efforts of the revolution and the president's inexperience to lead the revolution.

Sources:

Lead Image/Screengrab from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SYWo6FoVacY&t=431s

https://ncca.gov.ph/about-ncca-3/subcommissions/subcommission-on-cultural-heritagesch/historical-research/the-philippine-american-war-1899-1902/

https://www.britannica.com/event/Philippine-American-War

https://kahimyang.com/kauswagan/articles/913/today-in-philippine-history-february-4-1899-marked-the-start-of-the-filipino-american-war

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