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Instruments used to determine the different properties of food

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Bio – Electrical Impedance Analyzer

Bioelectric impedance is a method to measure the resistance of body tissues to the flow of a small electrical signal, and from that   calculate   the   proportion   of   body  fat.   A   Bioelectric Impedance Analyzer  is  a sophisticated scientific instrument, used in research and analysis.

Bio – Electrical Impedance Analyzer

Bioelectric impedance is a method to measure the resistance of body tissues to the flow of a small electrical signal, and from that   calculate   the   proportion   of   body  fat.   A   Bioelectric Impedance Analyzer  is  a sophisticated scientific instrument, used in research and analysis.

Mini-traction

 The  MTM  and  its  newer  version,  the  MTM2,  measure  the frictional properties of lubricated and non-lubricated contacts under a wide range of rolling and sliding conditions.

A    bench    top,    computer    controlled,    precision    traction measurement   instrument   which   provides   fully   automated traction mapping of lubricants and other fluids

Viscometer

Viscometers  have  wide  and  varied  applications  in  the materials science and chemical industries for materials such as oil, asphalt, plastics, wax, paints, coatings, and adhesives. They are also used for food and beverages and personal-care products such as cosmetics, shampoo, and toothpaste.

Rheometer

 A device used to measure the rheological properties of materials; rheology being defined as the study of the flow and deformation of matter, which describes the interrelation between force, deformation and time

Micrometer

A micrometer is a measuring instrument that can make extraordinarily       precise       measurements.       Most micrometers  are  designed  to  measure  within  one  one- thousandth   of   an   inch!   That’s   a   close   fit.   Exact measurements  like  this  are  necessary  when  even  the smallest of space between objects can cause problems or difficulties.

Polarimeter

Polarimeters are used in a wide range of applications, from the determination of the purity and concentration of ingredients in pharmaceuticals to the maturity testing of agricultural products to the measurement of the sugar content in beverages and candies.

Food and beverage grade air compressor

A food and beverage air compressor is a tool used by the food  industry  to  provide  clean,  safe  air  for  packaging, processing, and storing products. From cooking, storing, maintaining, and dispensing food, our food and beverage grade  air  compressors  are  made  to  the  highest  industry standards for safe handling.

Penetrometer

An instrument for determining the consistence or hardness of   a   substance   by   measuring   the   depth   or   rate   of penetration of a rod or needle driven into it by a known force. It also measures  the  force  required  to  move  a  plunger  a  fixed distance through a food material.

Instron Machine

 For testing tensile, compression, fatique and impact on a material

Used to measure the texture changes of food products, for example, to measure staleness in baked goods. It does this by testing  the  firmness  of  the  bread  to  measure  the  degree  of staleness by measuring the force needed to squeeze the bread and create a texture profile analysis.

Succulometer

An instrument for measuring the moisture content of a fresh or processed vegetable product (such as ear of corn)

Uses compression to squeeze juice out of food as a measure of succulence.

Textural Analyzer

It  is  a  double  compression  test  for  determining  the  textural properties of foods.

It  is  primarily  concerned  with  the  evaluation  of  mechanical characteristics  where  a  material  is  subjected  to  a  controlled force from which a deformation curve of response is generated

Texturometer

 It   was   applied  to  measurement  of   the  mechanical textural parameters: hardness, cohesiveness, viscosity, elasticity,   adhesiveness,   brittleness,   chewiness,   and gumminess. Subjective definitions of these parameters are   interpreted   in   terms   of   physical   measurement characterized by the texture “profile.”

Three-point bend rig

The  large  Three  Point  Bend  Rig  provides  a  base  with graduated  variable  support  length  up  to  240mm  and accommodates samples up to 90mm wide.

The  small Three  Point  Bend  Rig provides  a  variable support length up to 70mm for a sample width of up to 80mm.

Typical  applications  include  measuring  freshness  (by assessment of rigidity or flexibility) of vegetables and the break strength (or brittleness) of bread sticks, biscuits and chocolate bars.

Pea Tenderometer

Pea  Tenderometer  measures  the  quality  and  maturity  of fresh peas, and works via the principle of cutting shear. It consists of a grid of blades rotated at constant speed through a second grid of blades. As the peas are cut by the blades, the maximum force is measured.

Dilatometer

A dilatometer is  a  scientific  instrument  that  measures volume   changes   caused   by  a   physical   or   chemical process.  A  familiar  application  of  a dilatometer is  the mercury-in-glass  thermometer,  in  which  the  change  in volume  of  the  liquid  column  is  read  from  a  graduated scale.

REFERENCES

Friedman,  H.H.,  Whitney,  J.E.,  Szczesniak,  A.S.,  (July  1963),  Journal  of  Food  Science:  The Texturometer – A new Instrument for Objective Texture Measurement, Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1963.tb00216.x

JBT,       Foodtech:       Tenderometer,       Retrieved       from        https://www.jbtc.com/en/asia- pacific/foodtech/products-and-solutions/products/laboratory-devices/tenderometer

K. Muthukumarappan, G.J. Swamy, in Advances in Food Rheology and Its Applications, (2017) Retrieved        from        https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological- sciences/penetrometers#:~:text=1%20Penetrometer,5.14).

London  South  Bank  University:  Instron  Food  Materials  Testing  Machine,  Retrieved  from https://www.lsbu.ac.uk/stories/instron-machine

Mini-Traction Machine, PCS Instruments: Leaders in Tribology Test Equipment, August 31, 2020, Retrieved        from        https://pcs-instruments.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/MTM2- brochure-2017-Publisher-version-1.pdf

Smewing, J., (April 2015), Stable Micro Systems - Texture Analysis in Action: The Three-point Bend                                   Rig,                                   Retrieved                                   from https://textureanalysisprofessionals.blogspot.com/2015/04/texture-analysis-in-action-three-point.html#:~:text=The%20small%20Three%20Point%20Bend,sticks%2C%20biscuits%20and%20chocolate%20bars.

Textural Analysis of Food. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/MEHAKSAINI8/texture- analysis-of-food iscometers:  The  Science  of  Measuring  Fluid  Flow  (2013),  August  31,  2020.  Retrieved  from https://www.labcompare.com/10-Featured-Articles/143121-Viscometers-The-Science-of- Measuring-Fluid-Flow/ 

Werther International Air compressors and Compressed Air solutions: Food and Beverage Safe Air            Solutions       Retrieved       from       https://www.werther.com/food-beverage-air- compressors.html#:~:text=A%20food%20and%20beverage%20air,industry%20standards%20for%20safe%20handling.

What   is   a   Tribometer?   Tribonet:   About   Tribology,   August   31,   2020,   Retrieved   from https://www.tribonet.org/tribometer/#:~:text=Tribometer%20or%20tribotester%20is%20 a,observe%20wear%20of%20the%20materials. 

W.W.  Grainger,  Inc.  How  to  Read  and  Use  a  Micrometer,  August  31,  2020,  Retrieved  from https://www.grainger.com/know-how/equipment-information/kh-how-to-read-a- micrometer

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