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Artificial Intelligence

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It is considered artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, and one of the basic pillars of the industry technology in the current era, and can be defined as the term artificial intelligence, which referred to him abbreviation (AI) - that the ability of machines and computers digital to perform certain tasks that mimic It is like that which intelligent beings do; Such as the ability to think or learn from previous experiences or other processes that require mental operations, and artificial intelligence aims to reach systems that have intelligence and act in the way humans behave to learn and understanding so that these systems provide their users with various services of education and guidance Interaction.

The history of artificial intelligence

The date of the emergence of the term artificial intelligence goes back to the fifties of the twentieth century, specifically in the year 1950 AD when the scientist Alan Turing (English: Alan Turing) introduced what is known as the Turing Test (English: Turing Test), which is concerned with assessing the intelligence of a computer and classifying it. Smart if it is able to simulate the human mind. One year after the Turing test appeared, the first program to use artificial intelligence was created by Christopher Strachey - who was head of programming research at Oxford University - as he was able to run the checkers game through a computer and developed it.

Then Anthony Oettinger from the University of Cambridge designed a simulation experiment through a computer for the shopping process that the human person makes in more than one store. This simulation aimed to measure the ability of the computer to learn, and this was the first successful experience of what is known as machine learning.

The concept of artificial intelligence was officially announced in 1956 at Dartmouth College, but it has not made any progress for nearly twenty years, and this may be due to the limited computing capabilities that were available at the time. In 1979 the Stanford vehicle was built, which was the first computer-driven vehicle, and in 1997 AD the first computer was able to overcome a human competitor in the game of chess, and the pace of acceleration in the science of artificial intelligence began at the beginning of the twenty-first century Until interactive robots became available in stores, but it went beyond that to become a robot that interacts with different emotions through facial expressions, and other robots that have become difficult tasks such as the robot Nomad that performs the task of searching and exploring remote places in the pole Southern, determines the location of meteorites in the region.

Types of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence can be classified according to its capabilities into three different types as follows:

  • Limited or Narrow Artificial Intelligence :

Limited or Narrow AI is one of the types of artificial intelligence that can perform specific and clear tasks, such as self-driving cars, or even speech or image recognition programs, or a chess game. Smart devices and this type of artificial intelligence is the most common and available type at the present time.

  • General Artificial Intelligence:

It is the type that can work with a capacity similar to that of a human in terms of thinking, as it focuses on making the machine able to think and plan on its own and similar to human thinking, except that there are no practical examples of This type, as all that exists so far is merely research studies that need a lot of effort to develop and turn them into reality, and the Artificial Neural Network method is one of the methods of studying general artificial intelligence, as it is concerned with producing a system of neural networks for the machine similar to the one that it contains the human body.

  • Super Artificial Intelligence:

Super AI is the type that may exceed the level of human intelligence, and which can do tasks better than the specialized and knowledgeable human being can do, and this type has many characteristics that must be included. Such as the ability to learn, plan, automatically communicate, and make judgments, but the concept of artificial superintelligence is considered a hypothetical concept that does not have any existence in our time.

Artificial intelligence can also be classified according to the functions it performs, as this classification includes four different types as follows:

  • Interactive Machines:

Artificial Intelligence for Reactive Machines is considered the simplest type of artificial intelligence. As this type lacks the ability to learn from past experiences or past experiences to develop future business, it interacts with current experiences to produce them in the best possible way. Examples of this type of artificial intelligence are Deep Blue devices that were developed by IBM, and the AlphaGo system of the company Google.

  • Limited memory:

The limited memory type of artificial intelligence can store data from previous experiences for a limited period of time, and the autonomous driving system is one of the best examples of this type. It stores the last speed of other cars, how far the car is from other cars, the speed limit, and other data needed for driving on the roads.

  • The theory of mind:

This type of artificial intelligence is concerned with the machine’s understanding of human feelings, interaction with people, and communication with them, and it is worth noting that there are no practical applications currently for this type of artificial intelligence.

  • Self-awareness:

Self-awareness is considered one of the future expectations that the science of artificial intelligence aspires to, so that machines have self-awareness and special feelings, which will make them smarter than the human being, and this concept still does not exist on Earth Indeed.

Artificial Intelligence subfields

There are several subfields of artificial intelligence, namely:

  • Machine learning:

It is one of the branches of artificial intelligence that deals with making the computer able to learn on its own from any previous experiences or experiences, making it able to predict and make the appropriate decision quickly, and this is through the development of algorithms that It allows for such a matter, and it should be noted that this term was first introduced in 1959 AD by Arthur Samuel.

  • Data Mining:

Intended to search and prospecting for specific data and specific patterns within a large set of data by computer programs, as companies can benefit from data mining to improve their performance and increase their sales and reduce production costs.

  • Information Retrieval and Semantic Web :

Information retrieval means the process of searching for data and documents of any kind, which may exist on the web, through the concept of the semantic web that transforms the data on the network The global web into a global database in which information is interconnected, so that it is understood by machines and is not limited to human use only, through this matter the machine is able to book tickets online or use dictionaries on the web, or other things that originally require use Human to complete it.

  • Knowledge Representation:

It is considered to represent knowledge of the field of artificial intelligence, which is interested in enabling machines thinking and decision - making, as is the collection and storage of this knowledge gained by the machine in the database used for the exchange of knowledge and management, and be a reference for making any decisions Smart may emanate from the machine.

  • Logical thinking and probabilistic thinking:

Logical thinking in artificial intelligence is one of the different forms of thinking, as facts are inferred and inferred from available data, and logical thinking corresponds to what is known as probabilistic thinking, which takes the concept of probability And the uncertainty of knowledge, in order to deal with all uncertain future conditions, which may be suspected of occurring.

Artificial intelligence tools and platforms :

There are many tools available to learn artificial intelligence, including the following:

  1. Caffe tool:

This open-source tool - meaning it is available for modification by anyone - was developed by Yangqin Jia as research for his Ph.D. thesis at the University of California, as this tool is concerned with what is known as deep learning in artificial intelligence. Deeplearning4j tool: It is a deep learning programming library written in Java and is characterized by its ability to process big data, and like its predecessor, Deep learning is an open-source tool.

  1. IBM Watson tool:

It is a tool that allows its users to answer their questions with capabilities similar to human capabilities, this tool may be a source of help in providing business advice and optimal decision-making, and it also protects the data of its users by encrypting it, and it should be noted that this tool is only available in the English language.

  1. Pybrain tool:

It is a utility tool for people who are beginners in the Python language, and for those who are interested in deep learning and artificial neural networks within artificial intelligence, this open-source tool serves as a library of what is known as machine learning.

  1. Swift AI Tool:

This tool can work on Mac computers, and will soon be able to support the Linux system, as Swift AI allows its users to process signals, create algorithms for deep learning, or even create neural networks in the field of artificial intelligence.

  1. Torch tool:

It is an open-source tool for scientific computing within artificial intelligence, and this tool is distinguished by its support for neural networks in artificial intelligence, its ability to perform linear algebra operations, and its support for the graphics processing unit.

  1. CNTK Tool:

It is an open-source tool that allows its users to combine different types of artificial intelligence models, and this tool was developed by Microsoft.

  1. Keras tool:

Python was used to write this tool, which is a high-level library of what are known as neural networks in artificial intelligence science, and it is easy to use for those who have knowledge of deep learning.

  1. Scikit-Learn:

Scikit-Learn is one of the most popular machine learning libraries for artificial intelligence, with which data can be extracted, analyzed, and visualized.

  1. Theano tool:

It is a tool that works within the Python environment and deals with various mathematical and mathematical tasks such as arrays, and this tool is characterized by its speed through the personal computer; Not only does it use the CPU to do its tasks, it uses the GPU alongside the CPU. For quick execution of its orders.

There are also many artificial intelligence platforms that are concerned with the implementation of machines to tasks similar to what humans do, whether in terms of response, interaction with problems, or even learning, and here are some of the most popular and used artificial intelligence platforms:

  • Microsoft Azure Machine Learning Platform :

It is an artificial intelligence platform provided by Microsoft, used through a cloud storage service, and enables its users to analyze data to facilitate business machine learning.

  • TensorFlow platform:

It is an open-source library developed by the Google Brain team, where information is represented in the form of graphs, and each part of this graph expresses a specific piece of information.

  • Infosys Nia:

It is one of the artificial intelligence platforms that rely on the knowledge, then automate - automate - business processes and remake their system.

  • Wipro HOLMES:

It is a platform that provides its users with many cognitive computing services. To develop machines such as robots and drones.

  • Other AI platforms :

API.AI, Premonition, Rainbird, Ayasdi, Mind Meld, Wit, Vital AI, KAI, Receptiviti and Meya.

Artificial Intelligence Applications

There are many practical applications of artificial intelligence, and the most prominent of these applications are:

  1. Games: Artificial intelligence systems are used in many electronic games; Which requires dimension and strategic thinking, such as poker and chess, for example.

  2. Interaction with the visual system: Some applications of artificial intelligence can interpret and analyze the images entered into them. Such as facial recognition software, image analysis to determine the location, and other similar applications.

  3. Interacting with handwriting: through handwritten recognition applications, whether the process of writing on paper or on the device's screen itself.

  4. Intelligent robots: robots do many different actions, as they can do the work that humans do, due to their ability to sense surrounding factors such as light, heat, sound, or movement, through special sensors, and these robots are able to learn from their previous experiences and benefit Of errors.

  5. Interaction with the spoken voice: Some artificial intelligence systems can be used to listen to speech and understand its meanings, even if it was pronounced in the presence of some noise or was pronounced in colloquial or street language.

  6. Providing advice and guidance: Some applications of artificial intelligence can provide advice and advice to human users in certain areas, such as the medical field, for example, by analyzing the symptoms of a disease to reach and treat the disease, for example.

Pros of artificial intelligence

There are many advantages and benefits that accrue from the use of artificial intelligence, and these benefits include the following:

  • Permanent work: This is through the ability of machines to carry out their work continuously without feeling tired or bored, and their ability to produce consistently without regard to time or circumstances surrounding the work.

  • Important applications for daily life: Artificial intelligence provides many applications that have become important to the daily life of humans, and the smartphone and its various smart systems such as GPS, is one of the most prominent examples of the human need for various artificial intelligence applications.

  • Use of artificial intelligence to provide services: Many large organizations have relied on artificial intelligence systems to provide services to their clients instead of the traditional employee.

  • Getting rid of repetitive work: Artificial intelligence systems can be used to do the usual work that requires the same mechanism of work every time, and these systems can also be used to do work that may pose a threat to human life.

  • Providing medical care: There are many artificial intelligence systems that provide medical care to humans, through surgery simulators, or those applications that help detect neurological disorders or those that allow the patient to know the side effects of drugs, and radiosurgery applications must also be mentioned Which helped to be able to eradicate the tumors without causing any harm to the surrounding healthy tissues.

  • The ability to process massive amounts of data: AI systems can handle, store, and process massive amounts of data.

  • Accuracy and reduce the margin of error: The human use of artificial intelligence systems contributes to reducing the percentage of errors that may occur during the implementation of tasks, in addition to the great accuracy in performing these tasks.

  • Doing difficult work: Artificial intelligence systems can do things that humans may not be able to perform, such as exploration and exploration of hard-to-reach places such as the ocean floor.

  • Non-judgmental emotion: unlike humans, artificial intelligence is not affected by any emotions that may hinder the workflow, as these systems are not characterized by moodiness, but rather work according to a logical way of thinking, which makes them able to make the right decisions within a short time.

The downsides of artificial intelligence

There are many drawbacks to using artificial intelligence, including the following:

  • The high cost of using, updating, and maintaining AI systems.

  • Artificial intelligence systems are not aware of human ethics and values, as these systems lack the ability to make appropriate judgments, as they are only concerned with implementing what they are designed for without looking at what is right and wrong in carrying out the tasks.

  • The inability of artificial intelligence systems to change and develop their work system if they receive the same data every time, and may render them useless at a certain stage.

  • The lack of artificial intelligence systems to respond to the circumstances and changes that may occur in the work environment, and their inability to create and innovate like the ability of humans to do so.

  • Reducing many workers and employees as a result of using artificial intelligence systems and relying on them instead of humans.

The future of artificial intelligence

Scientists and researchers are working to develop future artificial intelligence in a way that can be greatly utilized and in multiple aspects of life. Starting with smartphones, to cars, or even homes that operate with a smart system. The following are some of the future scenarios that artificial intelligence systems may reach in different fields:

  • Entertainment:

A person may be able to watch a movie that he chooses his actors, and artificial intelligence systems may help production companies to analyze the scenario for a particular movie and anticipate the profits that the film may reap when it is shown in theaters.

  • Medical care:

It is expected that future artificial intelligence systems will be able to provide superior medical care to human beings, by providing special care to each patient according to his genes, lifestyle, and environment, thus helping to diagnose brain tumors and appropriate cancer treatment for each patient.

  • Data and information security:

Future AI systems are expected to be able to protect people's data from theft and hacking.

  • Daily life:

Future intelligence systems will have a great role in carrying out many of the daily vital tasks that a person needs, such as caring for the elderly and taking care of them permanently, accomplishing household chores, and many other things that one system of artificial intelligence will be able to do together, as will be for artificial intelligence systems A major role in performing actions that may require risk to be executed, such as fire fighting and mine clearance.

  • Means of transportation:

It is expected that in the future, fully autonomous cars will be reached so that the driver will be able to do anything else and leave the driving to the artificial intelligence systems available in his car. It must be noted that autonomous cars do exist today, but they are It will be widely available and popular in the future.

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