It's hard to find people who haven't heard of jinn-fairy tales. From time immemorial, rural civilization has been known to put children to sleep by telling fairy tales. In this golden age of science, in this 21st century, even today our rural society is treating the genes as a cause of various deadly diseases (thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, cancer), which is really painful. According to science, there is no such thing as a jinn-fairy. But yes, it is true that thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, cancer — these are genetic disorders that are caused by genetic problems. You must be confused about genes.
Let's clear up this confusion. The genes that cause these deadly diseases are genes that are not imaginary genes in our imagination, they are actually spread in the body of every living thing. These are scientifically proven. In the language of science, a gene is a specific segment of a broad DNA molecule that determines the characteristics of an organism. Each gene has different biochemical signals. And the expression of these genes is responsible for expressing the hereditary traits of the organism, which are transmitted from generation to generation.
Thalassemia, sickle cell anemia are mainly blood related genetic diseases. Our red blood cells contain a pigment called hemoglobin, which provides oxygen to our body. Surely you know that our blood is red because hemoglobin reflects bright red light. And the genes that are responsible for the release of hemoglobin are caused by mutations (changes in genetic signals) that cause thalassemia, sickle cell anemia.
Wouldn't it be great if we could cut out these genetic mutations with a stick like Harry Potter's magic wand, saving the lives of some of our loved ones. Modern science has turned this magic wand of human imagination into reality. This magic wand is nothing but the Crisper System.
Cass 9 is like a scissor, which will cut out genetic mutations. But the question is who will know the way to this Cass9? Who will take him to that particular place, recognize the mutations? And the guide RNA does the work of this guide. Guide RNAs are designed in such a way that guide RNAs can properly recognize its complementary signals in mutated DNA. So the guide RNAs are designed to recognize genetic mutations.
First the guide RNAs recognize the mutation precisely, then Cas9 comes and cuts off the mutation sites and the Crisper system attaches to the rest. As a result, those mutations in hemoglobin no longer exist and hemoglobin can perform its innate functions. Lin Ye, a scientist at the University of California, USA, and his team were able to remove these mutations in the hemoglobin gene (mentioned above) using CRISPR-Cas9 technology by taking blood cells from the body of a patient with thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.
On the other hand, Sichuan University scientist Lu Yu and his team collected white blood cells (immune cells) from the body of a patient with lung cancer. The PD1 gene (which controls the production of white blood cells) is cut off from white blood cells using Crisper-Cas9 technology. The number of these edited cells is increased in the laboratory. The cells are reintroduced into the patient's body. This is what is able to build a more intense resistance against cancer cells.
Not only thalassemia and cancer, scientists have been able to cure metabolic diseases called tyrosinemia in rats using Crisper technology. Today, all these amazing new discoveries of scientists are opening new doors in curing deadly diseases like thalassemia and cancer. The rate is also beating our imagination.