The Book Of Yesterday | May 17

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May 17, 1851

On this day in 1857, the Filipino writer who first translated the novels of Dr. was born. Jose Rizal in Tagalog Pascual Hicaro Poblete. He is from the family of Francisco Hicaro and Maria Poblete in Naic town, Cavite.

A graduate of the Bachiller en Artes course at the Liceo de Manila, he served as a writer and contributor to Marcelo H. Del Pilar's Diarong Tagalog, and he also collaborated with Del Pilar in publishing the pamphlet Revista Popular. He also served in the Spanish army under Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera to quell the revolution in the province of Nueva Vizcaya, but later turned his back on Spain because of his hatred of colonial rule. But upon his renunciation of Spain he was imprisoned in October 1897 as an incommunicado and exiled as a political prisoner. This did not prevent him from publishing the newspaper El Progreso de Madrid, and with the help of his Spanish friends Poblete was freed.

But when he returned to our country, he was imprisoned, this time, by the Americans at Fort Santiago. Upon his release he was able to contribute to the newspapers Taliba, La Vanguardia and El Mercantil. He also gave an article in the official periodical of labor unions in the Philippines El Grito del Pueblo. He also helped establish the Aglipayan Church and laboe group Union Obrero Democratica, and was one of the organizers of the Partido Nacionalista.

More than being a journalist, Poblete also published in 1909 his own Filipino translation of Jose Rizal's novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, and was one of Rizal's idols. He was also one of the campaigners for the construction of the Rizal monument in Luneta. Later, Poblete became subversive to the Americans because of his sarcastic displays of nationalism, which were then banned under the Sedition Act and Poblete was imprisoned again.

Poblete had 12 children; five to his first wife Leonicia Rieta, and seven to his second wife Rafaela Alemany.

Pascual Poblete, the Father of the Filipino Newspaper, died in Manila on February 5, 1921 due to a heart attack.


May 17, 1756

Just for control of the land in North America, the heated confrontation between the two powerful kingdoms in Europe ended in a seven -year war. On this day in 1756, a declaration of war was declared by King George II of Great Britain against its mortal enemy the nation of France which was then ruled by King Louis XV. In fact, this war was also only part of the war between Britain and France within north America for total control over it.

At that time, France held most of North America currently occupied by Canada, while Britain held 13 colonies of the would -be United States. But in this case, the European countries that otherwise have an interest in America are already participating in this war and are also fighting for domination in Europe. In particular, the kingdom of Prussia, which through the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle expanded the territory of Prussia, but its king Frederick the Great wanted to expand his territory further.

Eventually, the war also spread to most of Europe because of the alliance of nations and kingdoms against the other camp; Russia allied with France and Austria against Britain and its allies Prussia and the state of Saxony. Spain sided with France because they were held by the Bourbon dynasty, against Britain to protect its interests and colony in America, and Sweden also sided with France against Britain and Prussia. As a result, the Spanish and British colonies in Asia and America, such as the British colony in India and the Spanish colony in the Philippines and Cuba, were also involved in this war. An estimated 300,000 British joined the war against more than a million French during the seven-year war, and in this battle for domination across Europe, hundreds of thousands of civilians and soldiers on each side were killed.

Eventually, Britain won the battle and left France defeated and economically bankrupt, and eventually even lost its territories in North America. The Treaty of Paris was sealed on February 15, 1763 with the British victory. Britain even doubled its territory in America, and in exchange for the British leaving Cuba and the Philippines Spain would relinquish its colony of Florida. Frederick the Great's territory of Prussia was also greatly expanded when Austria ceded its territories of Silesia and Glatz.


May 17, 1902

Ancient civilizations have left their traces in modern times leaving a mystery to experts and historians with no answer until now. One of these is a strange object that emerged from the Mediterranean sea on this day in 1902 - the Antikythera Mechanism. It is a mysterious mechanical device said to date back to the first century BCE, first discovered by fishermen under the wreckage of an ancient Greek ship on the island of Antikythera, Aegean sea in Greece in 1901.

Greek archaeologist Valerois Stais in 1902 identified the mysterious artifact as a mechanical gear, which was divided into four pieces and the largest piece of such a mechanism was up to 13 centimeters. Experts have not long been able to determine the use of such an artifact, until after several studies various explanations have been proposed as to what kind of mechanism such an artifact is.

Aside from a mechanical clock, another more plausible explanation for the use of such an ancient mechanism is that it is an ancient type of analogue computer, which based its mechanism on the motion of the Sun and the Moon, and is also said to be used to calculate motion. of the five classical planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Experts also believe that it was designed by scientists in ancient Greece, particularly in the city of Corinth, whose mechanism was based on consultation with mathematicians and astronomers of the time such as Archimedes. The mysterious mechanism is also believed to have been created during the Hellenistic period, between the late second century and early first century BCE. X-ray analyzes of the mechanism also show that it has more than 30 gear wheels, which also amazes experts, as they have never seen such a complex mechanism in ancient times. It has also been noted that in ancient writings of the ancient Romans and Greeks the existence of such technology at that time.

What exactly is the Antikythera mechanism still remains a big puzzle to learners about it, although some hypotheses they have proposed on the real use of such a mechanism.


May 17, 1900

Exactly 121 years ago, at the George M. Hill Company in Chicago, Illinois in the United States, the first edition of the novel by American writer Lyman Frank Baum was first published reaching 10,000 copies of his novel that will impress many children throughout world - The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Baum’s writings were published on paper, but he and his sister Mary Louise Baum Brewster manually book bound each copy of the novel, and his sister was the first to receive a copy of the novel as a thank you.

Baum wrote the novel, dedicated to his dear wife Maud Gage Baum. Baum's novel hit the market so quickly that he even published 15,000 copies in October of the same year, until 250,000 copies of the novel were no longer enough for consumers. In the months that followed, the popularity of the novel increased, and the content of the novel wanted to be made public through drama so that it could be better known to many. Baum's novel was first staged in June 1902. Since then the rise of The Wizard of Oz to children has been unstoppable, with Baum in 1938 selling a million copies, and three million pieces of the novel in 1956.

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz revolves around the story of a Kansas-American girl named Dorothy Gale and her journey to a magical world called the Land of Oz, after a tornado blew away their home. In that land the characters Tin Woodman, Scarecrow and Cowardly Lion met and befriended, whom Dorothy helped find their new qualities none of them had. This was the beginning of their quest to reach their desires, from danger to the evil witch, monsters to mysterious lands, until the four found out that the wizard who promised them help was just another man who had previously been stranded in Land of Oz before Dorothy. However, he still tried to give the four what they wanted, and their journey continued before they met the demands of Tin Woodman, Scarecrow and Cowardly Lion and Dorothy and her pet dog returned to Kansas.

The Wizard of Oz is packed with colorful illustrations based on the chapters in the story, to further attract the attention of readers especially children. The children liked his novel so much that they even asked Baum to make more sequels of the novel. Although Baum received a lot of praise and recognition for his work, he also received criticism from other readers, especially in the religious sector because they said it promoted witchcraft stories, and it did not have a good lesson. to be given to children. Some, however, defended the novel, saying that if there was no value in teaching children through novels of love, fellowship and unselfishness then the moral standard taught by children’s books should be changed.

Until subsequent generations, The Wizard of Oz continued to rise and spread around the world, having been translated into many languages, and also featured several times in movies. The Wizard of Oz is undeniably one of the most popular novels of the 20th century.


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