The Book Of Yesterday | April 28

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April 28, 1949

Exactly 72 years have passed since the murder of the 61-year-old wife of former President Manuel Luis Quezon Doña Aurora Antonia Aragon Quezon, her daughter Maria Aurora, Quezon city mayor Ponciano Bernardo, the his son-in-law Felipe Buencamino III and eight others. On Baler-Bongabon Road in Quezon province, hundreds of Huk members ambushed the military arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines formerly Hukbalahap, 11 vehicles and two military trucks that make up the convoy of the former First Lady, and since Doña Aurora's vehicle was in front of the convoy, they were the first to be hit by the Huk's hunt from above. The ambush immediately killed 12 people from the convoy, including Doña Aurora, Baby or Maria Aurora, Mayor Bernardo, and Felipe Buencamino III. They also encountered the arriving escort soldiers of Doña Aurora, in which 10 Huk were killed by the military.

The whole country was shocked by the treacherous ambush on Doña Aurora, and sympathy poured out for the Quezon family left behind. President Elpidio Quirino declared nine days of mourning for the death of the former First Lady and at its funeral ceremony President Quirino emotionally blamed the Huk and its leader Luis Taruc for the shooting, but the other group denied it.

Prior to the assassination, Doña Aurora left Nueva Ecija for Baler town to inaugurate the Quezon Memorial Hospital there. The former First Lady was warned of the presence of the Huk on their way, and President Quirino even offered his plane, but Doña Aurora calmly said that the Huk would not hurt an old man like her.

Aside from being President Quezon's mistress, Doña Aurora has been a supporter of the advancement of women's rights in the country, such as freedom to vote, the activities of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines and one of those who helped establish the Philippine National Red Cross. Doña Aurora was first buried at the Manila North Cemetery in Manila, and in 2006 her remains were moved next to the bedside of her husband, President Quezon, in the Quezon Memorial Circle.


April 28, 1611

Today is the 410th anniversary of the oldest university not only in the Philippines but in the whole of Asia, the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, the Catholic University of the Philippines or the University of Santo Tomas or UST. It was founded by Father Miguel de Benavides of the Dominican order, and it is also the largest and one of the oldest pontifical universities in our country, which has been recognized not only by the Pope but by the Spanish Crown.

In 1609, Padre de Benavides was given permission to build the foundation of such a university, with the blessing of King Philip III. UST was originally named Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santisimo Rosario, and renamed Colegio de Santo Tomas. November 20, 1645 when Pope Innocent X elevated the Colegio de Santo Tomas as a university, the first institution to be given such recognition by the Pope. In 1785, the university was given a Royal title by the Royal decree of King Carlos III, and a pontifical title from Pope Leo XIII in 1902. In 1947, Pope Pius XII certified UST as the Catholic University of the Philippines.

Santo Tomas de Aquinas, a Dominican theologian, became the patron saint of this university. This university is headed by Dominican orders, and was originally located within Intramuros, and it was originally a school for seminarians wishing to enter the priesthood. Canon law, philosophy, theology, logic, Civil Law, grammar and art were the first courses taught at UST, and in 1871 they also included the course of medicine and pharmacy, the first university in Asia to offer such a course. This university shaped the education of some of our intellectuals and patriots such as Jose Rizal, Apolinario Mabini, Emilio Jacinto, Antonio Luna and others. It has also been the alma mater of four of our former Presidents; Manuel Luis Quezon, Jose P. Laurel, Sergio Osmeña, Sr., and Diosdado Macapagal, former Vice President Aurelio Tolentino and several former senators and chief justices of the country, including Cayetano Arellano.

Wealthy Spanish youth and some privileged Filipinos were fortunate enough to enter this university. As the number of students studying at UST increased, the Dominicans expanded the campus, and they also built a new branch in Sampaloc, Manila in 1927 and in the same year also accepted female students at UST. UST also temporarily halted operations twice. the first was during the Filipino revolution of 1896 and the second was during the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945, when it became an interment camp for foreigners living in Manila and American prisoners. And like many buildings in Manila, including the original UST campus in Intramuros that was destroyed by bombings, and also severely damaged the Sampaloc campus of UST, where many internees were imprisoned, until they were released in February 1945. After the war UST's Sampaloc campus was repaired but its original campus in Intramuros was never recovered.

During UST's 410 years of existence, it has been one of the centers of higher education in the Philippines, and has also excelled in the fields of academia, research, history, and even sports. Three Spanish monarchs and three Popes also had the opportunity to visit UST. The Very Rev. Fr. Gerard Francisco P. Timoner, III, O.P. the current Chancellor of UST.


April 28, 1545

Today South Koreans commemorate the 476th birthday of Admiral Yi Sun-shin, their National Hero and hero who rescued the Joseon dynasty of Korea from attempted occupation by Japanese foreigners.

Yi Sun-shin came from a family of court bureaucrats of the Joseon dynasty, and was born in the city of Hanseong (now Seoul, South Korea). His father Yi Jeong was a former bureaucrat who was among the aristocrats in Korea. As a child, Yi Sun-shin was already seen as a leader, something he could use to his advantage in the years to come.

After passing the government examination in 1576, Yi Sun-shin became a military officer and commanded several land and naval forces. Although implicated in false allegations by people who envied his position as a reason to be fired twice, Yi Sun-shin was still appointed as the commander-in-chief of the navy in Jeolla province to deal with the impending invasion of the forces. Japanese in Korea. During those times, the status of the kingdom was threatened by the Japanese occupation as Jurchen warriors invaded the north.

General Yi Sun-shin well led the interception of the Joseon fleet against the Japanese fleet under the leadership of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, even though it had no maritime skills. He was also the mastermind in building what is considered to be the first iron warship in history, the gobukson which means turtle ship.

In addition to its iron armor, they also equipped it with cannons to make it more resistant to the larger fleet of the Japanese. Aside from these steel ships, General Yi took advantage of his strategy over the geography of the southern Korean ocean. He also raised the morale of soldiers fighting in wars against the Japanese, thanks to his charismatic leader. Since the beginning of the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592, Korean guerrillas have successfully sunk Japanese ships without a single Yi Sun-shin ship being damaged.

In 1593, Admiral Yi was given command of the entire Korean fleet, but he was again involved in the false accusation that he was removed from the rank as an ordinary soldier. But when the Korean fleet fell again against the Japanese in the second wave of the Japanese campaign Admiral Yi was restored to command of the battle, and continued his long successful record in naval warfare. The Koreans regained control of its oceans, but on December 16, 1598, as his ships chased the Japanese fleet, a stray bullet struck the valiant Admiral whom he killed.

Aside from being the national hero of the the Korea, Admiral Yi Sun-shin is considered one of the great naval commanders in history, due to the 23 naval battles it won and never lost in battles during the Japanese invasion, though that he had no maritime skills and sometimes ran out of ships loyal to the enemy.


April 28, 1945

The gradual closing of the war chapter in Europe also saw the fall of two of the lofty dictators. Sensational was the end of the 61-year-old dubbed “Il Duce” and formerly ruled Italy as dictator and Prime Minister for two decades, wanting to be the new Julius Caesar in his new Roman Empire with Benito Mussolini.

On this day in 1945, he and his 33 -year -old lover Clara Petacci were confronted against a wall and then shot with a machine gun by Italian guerrillas, at Villa Belmonte in the small sitio Giulino di Mezzegra, in the town of Azzano. Fearing that the Nazis might rescue him again, the Italian guerrillas temporarily hid Mussolini in a farmhouse in Giulino di Mezzegra, and the next morning the guerrillas evicted their hated prisoner. Italian guerrillas captured Mussolini and his lover in the town of Dongo, while attempting to flee Italy after he was intercepted by a guerrilla checkpoint. His impersonation as a Nazi official did not work so as not to be recognized by the guerrillas.

The next day, the bodies of the slain Mussolini, Petacci and 14 other fascist supporters of the dictator were loaded onto a half truck and then dumped like garbage in Piazzale Loreto, a plaza in the city of Milan, Italy. Celebrating and furious people mobbed the corpse of their dictator, where they kicked, punched, urinated on, spat and even stuffed rotten vegetables into Mussolini's face, and others shot in the face and body. of the dictator. Mussolini's desecrated bodies were hung upside down at a gasoline station in Milan. But American forces also demolished Mussolini's bodies.

Aside from the betrayal of Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Hitler also heard of the tragedy of the dictator's ally and considered him an idol in the idea of ​​fascism, so this is also the reason why he committed suicide on April 30 and burned his body so that he would not. suffer what the people did to Mussolini. The bodies of Mussolini and Petacci were buried in a cemetery in Milan, and Mussolini's opponents were looking for them to dispose of his remains. Unbeknownst to them, Il Duce supporters dug up his body and hid it for four months before finding it in a monastery in Milan in 1946. When the government recovered it, they hid it again until gave a decent burial of his bones in his family’s musoleum in his hometown of Predappio in 1957.


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