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How does the Scientific Research Process progress?

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Written by   23
8 months ago
Topics: Idea, Science, Nature, Perception, Hopes, ...

Curiosity is the basis of the emergence of scientific research. People's efforts to understand the changes, events and phenomena in their environment trigger the desire to research. Scientific research preparations begin with the excitement created by this sense of meaning and learning curiosity. Since the research to be conducted is scientific, there are certain stages that need to be implemented. These studies, which are carried out according to a plan, are also called scientific study methods.

Determining the problem about the subject to be researched

Obtaining information by making observations about the identified problem

Data collection as a result of observations and experiments

Determination of tentative hypotheses presented for the solution of problems

Making predictions about solving the problem based on hypotheses

Conducting controlled experiments in accordance with the hypotheses put forward

Analyzing the data obtained as a result of the experiments

Obtaining and reporting the facts as a result of data analysis

To present general theories that explain the causes and consequences of the problem.

Revealing generally accepted laws about how the problem occurs

Scientific research processes are generally carried out according to the processes listed above. However, the type of data to be used in the stages of data collection, observation and experimentation, according to the purpose of the research, makes a difference in the research process. Which scientific field the subject of the research will be covered by, the research process should be determined accordingly. At this point, two different research processes emerge as quantitative and qualitative data.

Quantitative research is based on observations or experiments, according to the numerical research approach in which measurements can be repeated. While collecting and analyzing data in the scientific research process, statistical methods are used without adding personal comments. Results are expressed numerically. For example, in a study to investigate how many books people read on average in a year, these data are obtained numerically by using the survey method. Then, with the help of these numerical data, it can be revealed with various tables that how many books per year are read by individuals according to age groups and gender.

Those who do research in certain scientific disciplines have to use more quantitative methods. Especially the researches in the field of science are mostly carried out using quantitative research processes. Quantitative research is work carried out on a more objective basis. Therefore, the impartiality of the researcher in the process is important in terms of objectivity. At the beginning of the quantitative research, planning is done in advance and all stages of the research are implemented according to the predetermined plan. Since the research is based on the pre-established process, the testing of the determined hypotheses starts from the beginning of the research.

The next step is the creation of categories. It can be planned in advance to divide the groups on which scientific research will be conducted into categories determined according to the purpose of the research. Thus, it is easier to group and evaluate the numerical data to be obtained. For example, when it is desired to measure different effects of the same variable on young and old people, categories can be determined according to age group.

In the quantitative research measurement process, the research environment is carried out in a controlled manner. According to the purpose of scientific research, it is possible to use a limited number of variables and to examine events and phenomena in certain parts. By predicting which variable is effective on which variable, it is ensured that this effect is measured in a controlled manner. Then, the data is obtained by these measurements and expressed numerically.

As a result of obtaining measurements and data, research reports are created by evaluating numerical data. The data in the research report is usually explained with the help of tables and diagrams. These methods are more effective and understandable in the explanation of numerical data.

Qualitative research is a research process in which qualitative data collection methods such as observation, interview and document analysis are used. It is a form of research in which events and phenomena are followed in their natural environment as a whole and realistically. The nature of the research problem determines the selection of the qualitative research process in scientific research.

In the qualitative research process, there is no experimental environment that the researcher can directly control. While determining the research environment during the research process, each event is examined in its natural environment. Qualitative research requires in-depth and detailed studies by making direct contact with people. According to the data obtained, the course of the research may change or it may be necessary to go back to the beginning.

The structuring of scientific research requires the collection of data from a wide variety of types and sources. It is important to carefully evaluate, organize and interpret the data. Findings should be explained in detail, either orally or in writing. In order to decide on the type of data suitable for the research before proceeding to the data collection stage in the quantitative research process; It should be determined for whom the data will be collected and by whom it will be used. It should be decided what type of information is needed and how the information will be evaluated.

When it comes to the data collection stage in scientific research, there are three different data collection methods used in qualitative research; interviewing, observing, examining records and written documents. Data about people's experiences, thoughts and opinions can be obtained by having open conversations with people about the identified research topic. In the observation method, data is obtained by directly observing the activities of people related to the subject and the way of interaction between people.

Examining records and written documents is a longer time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Data is obtained by examining official documents, records, reports, personal documents. The analysis of these data is based on interpretation and critical approach. The researcher becomes a part of the research in qualitative research. The knowledge and experiences of the researcher are also effective in evaluating the data obtained during the research process.

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Avatar for Greyy
Written by   23
8 months ago
Topics: Idea, Science, Nature, Perception, Hopes, ...
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