Series of separation and distinct steps wherein various chemical, physical, and biological processes are break down is called unit operation. Drying is a classification of unit operation which involves the removal of liquids from solid matters.
In order to utilize several equations in drying, the properties of raw materials to be used should be assessed first. Drying equations will help us understand its mechanism and how it works. Kinetic modeling is usually used as theoretical concept in studies about drying. An article that proposed a set of conservation equation such as momentum, mass, energy, and species, together with other auxiliary equations for drying of biomass particle was studied by Fabio Alfaia da Cunha, et., al (2014). Existing articles are used in numerical simulation wherein three models of drying mass particle applied in high temperature were compared. The temperature was observed and the analytical methods used were comparison of model as well as the sensitivity test. After the necessary analyses it was found out that the convective model is the most apt to represent the phenomenon of drying biomass particles under typical combustion temperatures. Watcharin Dongbang and Worachest Pirompugd (2015) studied the drying kinetics of anchovy using centrifugal fluidized bed technique. Several calculations were carried out such as diffusivity, Newton, Henderson equations, and others to determine the moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy efficiency. Temperature and time are the parameters investigated and the materials include fresh anchovy, ring blower, electrical heater U-tube manometer, orifice plate, air distributor, driver motor, and duct. The moisture diffusivity measured as 0.11×10-9-0.25 ×10-9 m2/s and activation energy is 20.32 kJ/mol. In terms of change in moisture ratio, Midilli model is better compared to existing models. As a whole, the drying temperature was a significant factor in decreasing the moisture content, moisture diffusivity and drying time.
The process wherein solids act as fluids if placed in a specific condition is called fluidization. For example, a fluidized bed with gas inlet in the bottom part of a reactor usually nitrogen will help increase the heat transfer that occurs in the system. It is widely used in the chemical industries because it allows high rates of mass and heat transfer between the gas and solid phase. To observe the drying of cohesive particulate material, M.C.B. Ambrosio-Ugri and O. P. Taranto (2006) used 2-hydroxybenzoic acid in a rotating fluidized bed. Analytical analyses include Karl- Fischer method (for moisture content) and kinetic curves. Also, the frequency of pulsation, gas temperature, and initial moisture of the sample are the parameters investigated. After the analysis of the effects of initial moisture content and frequency of pulsation relative to the time of drying, the conclusion of the study states that the time is reduced with the increase in the frequency of rotation which allows the reduction in the flow or the temperature of the drying gas. The drying rate of the acid was affected by the frequency of disk pulsation under the condition tested. So, air consumption is reduced by the pulsation of the airflow making the study feasible resulting in higher production yield.
This is also part of my review of related studies and literature.
As a Chemical engineering student, it is essential for me to know various unit operations that takes place inside different power plants. These processes are widely used in different industries for production of several products and raw materials.
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