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Written by   54
1 year ago

Hand Tools and Basic Woodworking

Tools are objects designed to perform a specific work mostly by material removal process. They are employed in engineering, manufacturing, woodwork and metal work to perform operations such as cutting and shaping of parts and they can be hand or machine operated. Hand tools are tools operated by the hand and are used to accomplish a task of fabrication. Example: Hammars & Mallets, Chisels, Files & Rasps, Handsaws, Scrapers, Drills, Punches, Planes & Planers, etc.

Hand Tools

1. Hammars & Mallets

A hammer consists of a hardened and tempered tool steel head firmly fitted into a wooden steel or metal handle and held in position by wooden or metal wedges. The tool steel is made up of 0.1% - 1.5% Carbon.

Claw Hammar: A claw hammar is suitable for woodworking because of friction and heat.

Sledge Hammer: The Sledge hammer is suitable for metal working. Hand hammars may weigh 0.5kg - 2kg, while the weight of a Sledge Hammer varies from 4kg - 10kg.

Mallets: Mallets are hammers with rubber or wooden head. Mallets could have a rectangular or circular shaped wedge.

2. Chisel

A Chisel is a cutting tool which consists of a steel blade that has a sharp bevelled head at one end. Chisels are made of high Carbon-Steel and are used to shape and fit parts as required when making joints.

*N.B: A ferrule connects the tong to the handle.

Types of Chisels

- Firmer Chisel

- Mortise Chisel

- Parting Chisel

- Dovetail Chisel

Gouge: Gouges are Chisels with curved cutting blades. They are used for cutting round holes. There are two kinds: Outside and Inside Gouge. The Outside ground gouge is called Firmer Gouge. Whereas, the inside ground gouge is Scribbing or Pairing Gouge.

3. Files & Rasps

Files are made of hardended tool steels with slanting rows of teeth. Ferrule connects the Tang to the handle.

Rasp: A rasp is a file with larger teeth on it's cutting surface.

4. Hand Saw

Handsaws are used to cut wood to a specific dimension.

Woodwork Saws are wood cutting tools having a handle and a Tin-Steel blade with series of small sharp teeth along the edge. Saws are used to cut wood of different sizes.

Classification of Saws

• Frame Saw (Bow, Frets and Coping)

• Hand Saw (Rip, Cross-cut, Panel, Key-hole and Pad Saw)

• Snuff Saw (Tenon Saw and Dovetail Saw)

5. Planes and Planers

A planer is a special tool for smoothening and removing wood as shavings. The use of plane is limited to the exterior of the wood piece i.e to the horizontal and vertical surfaces.

Classification of Planes

° Jack Plane

° Smooth Plane

° Jointer Plane

° Trying Plane

° Rabbet Plane

° Circular Plane

° Fore Plane

*N.B: Woodpiece is a material used to shape to the desired dimensions. Tool piece is the device used to accomplish the task.

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Written by   54
1 year ago
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