Chronic Ankle Sprain

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2 years ago

Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, boasting more than 265 million youth

and amateur players (Grindstaff et al., 2013). However, soccer is also popular to the different

injuries like sprain (Henry et al., 2016). The sprains may account for approximately 20% to 40%

of all soccer injuries and the most common affected part of the body is the ankle (Timestra et al.,

2012). The incidence of ankle sprain of soccer players based on foreign incidence is equating

approximately 5,600 per day in a year and it accounts for between 3 - 5 % of all emergency

department (Cooke, Lamb, Marsh, Dale, 2013). Most ankle sprains in soccer are caused by lateral

or medial forces of the foot or ankle due to excessive inversion or eversion. The lateral side of

ankle is commonly injured in an ankle sprain because 85% of ankle sprain is due to excessive

inversion (Dubin et al., 2011).

Recurrent ankle sprain in sport may result decreased performance, absence from competition

and adverse psychological effects (Oztekin & Zeren 2012). The detection of deficits in balance

abilities was shown to be a reliable predictive tool for injury of the ankle in soccer players

(Plisky, Rauh, and Kaminski & Underwood 2006). It have substantial short-term consequences

such as loss of participation, and the potential for long - term consequences such as decreased

physical activity and increased risk of osteoarthritis (Grindstaff et al., 2013). Studies have

reported significant invertor weakness in chronically unstable ankles (Hartsell & Spaulding

2006). Therefore, ankle sprain can cause a player to be removed from a game, miss a game, or to

be disabled enough to seek medical treatment, while others defined injury as one received during

training or competition, which prevented the injured player from participating in normal training

or competition for more than 48 hours (Wong & Hong 2005). According to Jay Hertel et al.,

(2013), it was confirmed that female has a higher risk of sustaining an ankle sprain compared

with males. Ankle sprain results in lower kick accuracy of a soccer player.(Engebretsen, Myklebust, Holme, Engebretsen, & Bahr, 2009). While extrinsic factors are

playing surface and use of artificial braces (Prien et al, 2016). These factors affecting recurrent

ankle sprain in soccer players were based on foreign literature; factors affecting Filipino soccer

players and kick accuracy are yet to be known.

An appropriate exercise program is an important way to assess and address deficiencies in the

human body (Mancuso et al., 2008). Therefore, exercises have been identified as an effective

therapeutic intervention for the morbid complications of ankle injuries. The causes of ankle sprain

include muscle weakening and the lack of proprioceptive sense (Urguden, Kizilay, & Sekban

2010). Proprioception capabilities can be impaired when joints are injured, such as with ligament

sprains therefore, proprioceptive exercises teach your body to control the position of a deficient

or an injured joint (Pfeifer et al., 2009). Mitchell et al., (2008) suggested that proprioceptive

training post-ankle ligament injury may improve peroneal muscle reaction time, aesthetic and

postural sway deficits. Proprioceptive exercises are used because it has an advantageous effect on

injury prevention and reduction in athlete while poor balance has been correlated to increased risk

of injury in athletes (McLeod et al., 2009). In addition, proprioceptive exercise are effective at

improving function, decreasing symptoms of instability, and preventing re-injury after ankle

sprains (Zech et al., 2009). However there are some doubts on whether proprioceptive training

can improve proprioceptive acuity in a function way at all (McCaskey et al., 2014).

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