Spooky Neutrino and Haunted Project
A tiny particle. Not even seen with a powerful microscope. But it has existence. The funny thing is that it has no effect on any object. It goes through whatever obstacles come in front of it. Even a huge object like the earth is not an obstacle for it. If there is a particle, how do I understand it? Scientists or why obey? Scientists did not want to accept at first. There was no way not to comply again. But that particle or trillion trillion is being created every moment! The name of the particle is neutrino. In 2015, two scientists received the Nobel Prize for this particle.
Austrian scientist Wolfgang Pauli. There is a famous formula in physics called ‘Pauli’s Abolition Principle’. The formula is his invention. It was Pauli who first predicted neutron particles. However, there is another contribution behind it. He is another famous physicist Niels Bohr. 2929 Bohr then became famous for his atomic model. Bohr wrote a letter to Pauli asking for advice. 15 years younger than Paulie Bohr. Moreover, Bohr has received the Nobel Prize by that time. Yet why the advice to a 29-year-old junior scientist? Because Paulie is famous for being outspoken. If a scientist did not think the theory correct, he would say his statement. Many young scientists were also afraid of his harsh remarks. For this reason Bohr sent Pauli to test his theory. Paulie could not agree with Bohr's idea. In response, he wrote, ‘Your idea of radiation is not at all satisfactory. For the time being, let your imagination sleep and let the stars shine in peace! '
What did Bohr say?
Before going into Bohr's words, one can look at the history of elementary particles. Ancient Greek civilization is the birthplace of modern science. At that time the people there had the idea that earth, water, air and fire - these four things created our earth. That is, these objects are the basic substances. But in 600 BC, the Indian philosopher Kanad was the first to give the idea of indivisible particles. According to him, all the objects on earth are made up of these tiny particles. That theory of particles was established in Greece by another great philosopher, Democritus. He named that indivisible particle Atomic Theory. Aristotle then appeared in Greece. He became a god to the Greeks because of his extraordinary ability and work ethic. His words were unanimously believed by the common people as well as kings and emperors. Aristotle believed in the theory of earth, water, air and fire. So the atom or atomic theory of particles and Democritus is obscured.
Then about two thousand years passed. In 1803, the British physicist John Dalton brought the atomic theory to the fore again. Set up a groundbreaking model called ‘Paramanuvad’. According to this theory, every substance is the sum of many tiny particles called atoms. These particles can no longer be divided. Dalton named the smallest particle of elemental matter 'elemental atom' and the smallest particle of compound substance 'compound atom'. There is a clear discrepancy in Dalton's theory of atomism. This theory did not distinguish between the smallest particles of elemental and compound matter. Another scientist named Avogadro came forward to solve this problem. He said that Dalton's theory of atomism was correct in the case of elemental matter, but not in the case of compound matter. According to him, the smallest unit of composite matter is formed by the addition of two or more elementary atoms. This unit is called molecule. Molecules can also be basic elements. In that case, two or more atoms of the same elemental substance combine to form elementary molecules.
Dalton's theory of atomism, the "smallest particle of matter", survived until the end of the nineteenth century. In 1898 Sir J. J. Thomson, experimenting with a leak-like tube in a picture tube on a television, saw that the tube's splendor was emitting a negatively charged particle from a red metal heated filament. Thomson examined its mass. These particles are a thousand times lighter than the atomic mass of the lightest element, hydrogen. Thomson placed a phosphor-coated screen on the way out of these particles. You see, they can create a fringe of light on the screen. It is not possible to match the nature of such light particles. Thomson thought maybe it came from inside the atom. Their idea was quickly proved. Discovery is the new particle electron. The scientists sat motionless. Then the atom can be broken!
In 1911, British scientist Ernest Rutherford conducted an experiment. That test hit the gold leaf with a swarm of running alfakana. The alpha particle is the nucleus of the hydrogen atom. He saw some particles piercing the gold leaf. Some particles change direction after falling on the gold leaf and go out in a crooked way. And some particles are reflected from the goldfish and coming back in the opposite direction. Rutherford made some important decisions by analyzing the results of this test. Those decisions are known as Rutherford's atomic model.
From the gold test, Rutherford was convinced that all atoms had a dense solid nucleus. There is a huge gap outside the nucleus. The center is positively charged. The position of the negatively charged electrons in the space outside the center. Almost all the mass of an atom is concentrated in its center. The size of the nucleus is negligible. About one millionth of the volume of an atom. It is thought that almost all the regions of an atom are empty!
Rutherford added that electrons with a negative charge revolve around a nucleus with a positive charge. The nature of the motion of electrons revolving around the nucleus is much like that of the planets revolving around our Sun. That is why Rutherford's atomic model is also called the solar system atom model. The only difference is that the force of gravity acts between the sun and its planets and the force of electromagnetic force acts between the nucleus and the electrons.
In 1919, Rutherford discovered the existence of a type of particle called a proton while searching for the source of positive charge in the nucleus. These particles are the source of positive charge.
1932 Rutherford colleague James Chadwick found a strange kind of particle inside the nucleus. That particle has no charge. That is, the charge is neutral. That is why it is called neutron. Scientists are convinced that electrons, protons and neutrons are the three elements that make up all the basic substances on Earth. Compounds are again made up of atoms of elemental matter. To be sure, all the objects on Earth are made up of these three basic particles. But science did not stop there. The question arose in the scientific community, how do protons and neutrons in the nucleus become strongly connected to each other? Gravitational force does not act in them? Moreover neutron charge neutral particles, on the other hand protons are positively charged; So none of these are supposed to act as an electric attraction force. Again, two particles with the same charge repel each other Ñ so a repulsive force is supposed to act on a nucleus with more than one proton. As a result, the protons are supposed to scatter away from the nucleus.
With this problem they noticed another strange thing. The mass of a nucleus is supposed to be equal to the sum of the different masses of protons and neutrons inside. But in reality it did not happen. The mass of the nucleus is not equal to the sum of the different masses of protons and neutrons. Pretty much less. So where did the rest of the bharatuku?
Einstein himself came forward to solve these two problems. It takes a huge amount of energy to separate the nucleons from the nucleus (protons and neutrons are a common name for each nucleon, this name is inside the nucleus). Calculated from the opposite side, the nucleons release the same amount of energy when they form bonds within themselves. Where do the nucleons get this energy? In order to produce this energy, the nuclei reduce their overall mass somewhat. So there is a mass deficit in the nucleus. That deficit turned into a huge amount of energy according to Einstein's famous equation ঊ = opposite. In order to break the well-formed nucleus, the same amount of energy has to be applied from outside. Then the nucleons receive that energy and regain their lost mass and their nuclear bonds are broken.
The problem of nucleus mass deficiency was solved, so scientists assumed that our visible world was made up of electrons, protons and neutrons - these three basic particles. But their idea was proved wrong by a scientist named Murray Gelman. In 1986, Gelman proved that electrons are indivisible particles, but protons and neutrons are not. Protons-neutrons are made up of some tiny particles called quarks. Stay the story of the quarks. We would rather go back to our original subject.
In 1905, Albert Einstein published the equation of mass E = mc ^ 2. According to this equation the mass of an object can be converted into energy. The relationship between mass and energy was created. Then another source came out. The eternity formula of gravity. Earlier, there were different sources of mass and energy. According to the Nityata Sutra, the mass-energy of the universe is always the same. New gravity cannot be born again and the total mass will not be less. Only mass-energy can be converted from one state to another. But the law of permanence seemed to be violated in some radioactive atoms. Some basic substances emit a kind of ray. As a result, their nucleus breaks down. After fission, that nucleus becomes the nucleus of another atom. For example, uranium nucleus is converted to lead by radiation. Radioactive decay is a completely uninterrupted process. Even if uranium is buried under rocks thousands of miles deep, it still emits rays.
Radioactive substances emit three types of rays. Alpha, beta and gamma rays. Ray is right, but these are not just rays, particles. The rays are seen as the result of the radiation of the particles.
Alpha and gamma ray corrosion is not a problem. The permanence of mass-energy is maintained. But the problem occurred during the beta ray radiation. Violations of the law of mass-energy constant were observed in the case of atoms that emit beta rays. For example, let's talk about tritium. Tritium is the radioactive nucleus of two protons and a combined hydrogen. Normal hydrogen has only one proton, no neutrons. The tritium nucleus contains two neutrons and one proton. Tritium emits beta rays to form helium nuclei. And the beta ray is scattered with the mass and velocity of the electron. As a result, the weight of tritium is slightly reduced. On the other hand, electrons or beta rays are coming out of the atom with some gravity. The lost mass of tritium should be equal to the mass of the electron that escapes from the nucleus. But the calculation showed that the mass of the electrons of the beta ray is a little less.
So where did the rest of the mass go?
Scientists have been working hard but have not been able to find a solution. Bohr then proposed that many of the principles of classical physics do not apply to the molecule. That is why quantum mechanics was born. However, the first proponent of quantum mechanics was the famous German scientist Max Planck. According to Bohr, not being able to explain lost mass-energy means that the permanence formula of gravity is not working here. So in this case we have to avoid the principle of permanence in the case of atomic objects. And he made this offer in a letter to Pauli.
Paulie then began to think about it. He did not want to exclude the permanence of mass-energy. This is because the mass of alpha and gamma rays is constant. If we follow Bohr's words, we have to omit the formula of permanence of gravity from there too. And in doing so, many aspects of nuclear physics will be reversed. Paulie began to think a little differently. He thought that the lost weight must have turned into some other invisible particle. What is that particle? Why is the existence of the particle not caught?
The name of that particle is neutrino. Paulie says the particle has no charge. Charged particles are attracted by other charged particles. So they interact in the air or in other objects. Charged particles can therefore be easily detected with a particle-detector device. But uncharged particles are less likely to interact with other objects. So it is difficult to find uncharged particles. Charged electrons, protons have been found so far but neutrons have not been discovered yet. However, scientists were convinced that the bit decay was from inside the nucleus and that protons were not responsible for it. It is coming from any other source. The source of that neutron is still unknown. The story of the discovery of neutrons will also come in time.
That strange particle is so neutral that it has a very high penetrating power.