An unusual river flowing in North Africa. 4156 miles long - the longest river in the world - called the Nile River. The name comes from the Greek word nilos. It is not known where the Greeks got the word from, as its inhabitants knew it only as a "river."
The two oldest civilizations in the world developed north of the Nile, and over the course of nearly six thousand years, complex societies developed in villages along both sides of the Nile.
At that time no one knew where this river originated. Its waters flow from south to north. However, no one in the ancient Mediterranean region has been able to discover its source in the far south. For the ancient nations, finding the source of the blue was as intriguing and difficult as discovering the other side of the moon - until the image of the reversal of the moon came into our sight via satellite, the appearance of the reversal of the moon was unknown to all.
Only in the second half of the nineteenth century did European and American explorers follow the course of the Nile to reach its source. An Englishman named John Henning arrived at Victoria in 1857 and named it Victoria after the then Queen of Britain. It is right on the equator and this is where the Nile originates. Many small and large rivers in Middle East Africa have joined the Nile.
On the way north it had to cross a very narrow and steep valley. The raging water is splashing on the rocks and creating many waterfalls in the downward movement. It is not possible for ships to cross the rapids and waterfalls, so the river is divided into several parts.
The number of falls is determined from north to south. The first falls is about six hundred miles south of the estuary. The falls are now just south of the city of Aswan, but in ancient times the city was known to the Greeks as "Sayini."
The first scene of the Nile from the estuary to the first waterfall is the main scene of this book. This part of the river is also conducive to very ordinary navigation, which has led to the development of a remarkable civilization here.
The Nile River flows along the eastern edge of the Sahara Desert. The Sahara (Arabic meaning desert) covers most of North Africa and is about the size of the United States. In fact, it is the largest desert in the world. There is no rainfall in this whole area. The amount of water is very deep in the soil, only occasionally in the oasis it has risen close to the surface.
However, the Sahara was not a desert forever. Twenty thousand years ago, most of Europe was covered by glaciers, and cold winds carried moisture from there to North Africa. Today, where the desert used to be, there were rivers, lakes, forests and grasslands. Prehistoric people roamed there and they left uneven stone weapons.
Gradually the glaciers receded and the climate became warmer and drier. More and more people are gathering around the Nile River. The drought started and gradually it intensified. Plants die and animals move to humid areas where they will find adequate food and suitable habitat. People are also moving towards the equatorial region in the south and towards the coast in the north. The largest gatherings are in the Nile Valley, which in the distant past was wider and slower flowing through large swamps. In fact, the Nile Valley was not at all conducive to human habitation until its waters receded somewhat.
After this happened, the Nile Valley became a blessing from God. No matter how dry the weather was, the Nile River became a constant source of water for the soil and people, so that life became not only possible but also comfortable.