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Components of the Ecosystem.

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1 year ago
Topics: Science, Facts


The ecosystem is made up of two main components. These are; The biotic (living) components: the biotic components include the living things ( plants and animals) which can be grouped into producers, consumers and decomposers. Producers: they are autotrophs ( green plants and some micro organisms) which manufacture their own food from simple inorganic materials during the process of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.

Consumers: they are the heterotrophs (animal and some plants) which cannot manufacture their own food but depend on plants directly or indirectly for their own food. They may be primary, secondary or tertiary consumers.

Decomposers: They are bacteria and some fungi which break down dead plants and animals in order to feed on them and in the process nutrients are released to the soil for user by the producers.

B. The abiotic components: the abiotic components of the ecosystem include the non- living things which include:

Climatic factors like temperature, wind, humidity, sunlight and rainfall. Inorganic materials and nutrients such as carbon (iv) oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus etc Edaphic factors like soils, rocks, topography.


There is a unique interaction among the various components of an ecosystem. Green plants use carbon (iv) oxide, water and chlorophyll in the presence of sunlight to produce carbohydrate or starch. Animals feed on these carbohydrates or plants and release carbon(iv)oxide for plant to take in. The decomposers break down dead plants and other organisms to release nutrients for food production. Plants give out oxygen during photosynthesis which is used by animals for their normal respiration.

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