Since the Nobel Prize was announced for the first time in 1901, the Nobel Prize has gained great importance because it represents recognition of the genius of its recipients in various fields and their contribution to the service of humanity, in addition to the material value of it, which exceeds one million dollars, despite not including the conditions for nomination and then winning. The award is based on any bias towards religion, race or gender, but the list of recipients of the award, historically, indicates a lot of bias. Whether for political or social reasons.
Discrimination against women is one of the deficiencies of the Nobel Prize. Where only 54 women won the award, out of 935 winners, the prize was awarded in physics 203 times, women received only two prizes from them only, and the Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded 171 times, women won 4 prizes, and women won 12 prizes Nobel Prize in medicine out of 211 awards, as for the Nobel Prize in Literature, it was awarded 211 times, of which women won 15, and Nobel Prize in Peace was awarded 129 times, women won 16 prizes, and the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1969 was launched, and one woman won the prize. Among the 76 winners.
The 10 most famous Nobel Prize winners in various fields
Mary Skodowska Curie (7 November 1867 - 4 July 1934), born in Warsaw, Poland, was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize, and the only woman to win two prizes in two different fields; She was awarded a Nobel in Physics, shared equally with her husband; French physicist Pierre Curie, and a second prize in chemistry.
Mary Curie is the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize and the only recipient of two Nobel Prizes in two different fields
Curie, accompanied by her husband, continued the discoveries of the French physicist. Henri Becquerel on the element "uranium"; Where they conducted several studies related to the rays emitted from this element, and reached the theory that the rays emanated from the atomic structure of the element itself, and not the result of interaction between atoms, to establish this theory for what is known today as "atomic physics", and they won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 .
Curie's husband died in the year 1906, when Mary later replaced him as a professor at the Sorbonne University, becoming the first woman to hold a professor position in the Sorbonne, and she pursued her research and studies in various fields of science to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911, for her discovery of two new elements, She called the first "radium", and she called the second "polonium", after her birthplace, Poland, which was called "Bologna" previously.
Salma Lagrove (20 November 1858 - 16 March 1940) Swedish novelist and writer, born in Värmland; On the Swedish-Norwegian border, she was the first writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, which she received in 1909, before being selected to be a member of the Swedish Academy that awards Nobel Prizes in 1914.
Salma Lagrove began her life as a teacher in a school in Landskrona, where she worked for 10 years until she decided to devote herself to literature.
Lagrove began her life as a teacher in a school in the town of Landskrona, where she worked for 10 years, until she decided to stop teaching and devote herself to literature, and published her first novel, "The Epic of Gusta Berleng", which heralded a romantic renaissance in Swedish literature, and then in 1895 she traveled to Jerusalem and lived there, Upon her return, she published a novel called "Al-Quds". She also published several other novels, including; "Nils Holgerson's Wonderful Journey Through Sweden" in 1907, "Invisible Ties" in 1894, and others.
Irene Julio Curie (12 Sep 1897 - 17 Mar 1956) A French chemist, born in Paris, where she grew up in a family interested in science, she is the daughter of two worlds famous; Marie Curie and Pierre Curie, who received a Nobel in chemistry in 1935, shared equally with her husband Frederick Giulio.
Irene received a PhD for her thesis. "Alpha rays emitted by polonium", in 1925, and then she married Frederick the following year, and the couple worked to determine the radioactivity, which led them to the Nobel Prize, as well as their work on the French nuclear bomb project, which surpassed the American nuclear bomb project.
In 1950, Irene was diagnosed with leukemia, as a result of her exposure to intense radiation during her work, the same disease that her mother had, but she continued to practice science. She planned to set up nuclear physics laboratories at the University of Orsi, France, before she died.
My Korean Girl (15 Aug 1896 - 26 Oct 1957) A biochemist, American of Czech origin, is the third woman to win the Nobel Prize in the scientific fields, and the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Medicine, which she won jointly with her husband Karl and Argentine scientist Bernardo Hosai in 1947.
Garti obtained a doctorate in medicine from the University of Prague in Germany in 1920, and she married her colleague Carl Ferdinand in the same year, then the couple moved to New York in 1922, where they began to work on research related to the mechanisms of metabolism, before they moved to the University of Washington in 1931. Gertie was awarded the title of Professor of Biochemistry in 1947, earning a Nobel Prize later that year.
My daughter died after a 10-year struggle with "myelofibrosis cancer", and she has continued her research career through the years of her illness. She received several awards and accolades for her important discoveries in the field of medicine, and the US Postal Service issued a stamp in her name.
Maria Goeppert Mayer (28 June 1906 - 20 February 1972) An American scientist specializing in theoretical physics, born in Germany, and enrolled at the University of Göttingen, Germany in 1924, where she studied mathematics, and after her graduation, she pursued her studies in physics, to obtain a PhD in 1930; For her thesis on the theory of "two-photon potential absorption by atoms", Mayer won the Nobel Prize in 1963, in partnership with the German; Hans Jensen, American of Hungarian descent; Eugene Wenger, for their discoveries related to atomic physics.
Meyer has published numerous research papers in the fields of atomic and chemical physics, where her work forms the theoretical basis for many discoveries related to laser physics. Such as laser isotope separation, and molecular orbital computation.
Meyer suffered a stroke in 1960, shortly after her appointment as a full-time professor of physics at the University of California, but she continued teaching despite the effects of the stroke, until she had a heart attack in 1971, and then entered into a coma that lasted until her death, and the American Physical Society launched an award Maria Goeppert Mayer, and the Argonne National Laboratory has launched an annual award in her memory.
Dorothy Marie Hodgkin (12 May 1910 - 29 July 1994) A British scientist, specializing in biochemistry, born in Cairo, Egypt, and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964 for her discoveries related to X-ray crystals; Where she relied in her research on the use of x-ray crystals, and she succeeded in determining the structure of penicillin in 1946, and vitamin B12 in 1956, and she was able to determine the structure of the insulin protein in 1969.
Barbara McClintock (16 March 1902 - 3 September 1992) An American scientist specializing in cytogenetics, she obtained a PhD in botany from Cornell University in New York in 1927, and she is the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine on her own, and she still holds this title to this day.
McClintock began her career in the development of corn cell genetics, and in the late twenties of the last century, she began to study chromosomes and their change during the cloning process in the atom, to win the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1983, as a result of her discoveries related to specific sequences of DNA that can be changed Its location is within a gene.
McClintock was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959, and won the Kimber Prize in Genetics in 1967, as was awarded by the late US President. Richard Nixon, the National Medal of Science in 1970, as she was the first woman to receive this award, as well as receiving an award from Columbia University for her research in "the development of genetic information."
Elinor Ostrom (7 August 1933 - 12 June 2012) She is the first and only woman to win the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences. It won the prize in 2009, equally with the American economist; Oliver Williamson, as a result of their research related to economic analysis, participatory management and environmental economics.
Elinor Ostrom is the only woman to win the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences
The political economist, born in America, obtained a PhD in political science from the University of California in 1954, and was also awarded an honorary doctorate from the same university in 1965, and she worked on field studies in small communities, dealing with the management of these communities for shared natural resources. As pastoralism, hunting, and forestry development, she also held the position of a member of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America, as well as a professor of political science at Indiana University in Bloomington, and director of the Center for Institutional Diversity Studies at the University of Arizona.
Pakistani; Malala Yousafzi, born on July 12, 1997, is the youngest Nobel Prize recipient, as she has been active in the field of female education and human rights advocacy in the Swat Valley region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, northwest Pakistan, which suffered from Taliban suppression by preventing Girls go to school.
Pakistan's Malala Yousafzi is the youngest recipient of the award for her defense of the female's right to education against Taliban oppression.
Malala was shot while on her school bus in the Swat Valley, Pakistan in 2012, when one of the gunmen, who asked for her by name, then fired 3 bullets, one of which hit the left side of her forehead, and she remained unconscious for a week, before her health improved to resume her struggle against reaction. .
Yousafzi won the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize, along with the Indian activist; Kailash Satyarthi, for her defense of the right to education, and her struggle against the violation of the rights of children and youth.
Nadia Murad Basi Taha was born in 1993 to a Yazidi family from the village of Kuju, the district of the Iraqi city of Sinjar, and she won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2018 for her activism in defending the rights of women and children. United Nations as a Goodwill Ambassador in 2016.
Nadia Murad suffered from ISIS terrorism after they took control of her village and killed her mother and 6 siblings, then kidnapped and raped her
Murad suffered from ISIS terrorism after they took control of her village and killed her mother and 6 of her brothers, in addition to her kidnapping, rape and exposure to various types of abuse and psychological and physical abuse, before she succeeded, 3 months after the kidnapping, she fled to Germany, where she received treatment and care. And it set out on its journey to defend humanitarian causes; So, influential and international personalities met and spoke about the issue of human trafficking at the Security Council on December 16, 2015.