Structurally, the corona virus is a large family of RNA viruses. The word "corona" literally means crown. Under the electron microscope, the virus of this family looks a lot like the crown of a king's head, hence the name. Like all other viruses, they also depend on one or another animal or plant cell for survival and reproduction.
The outermost part of the virus contains glycoprotein spikes, which allow the virus to attach to living cells and infect them. The second component is ribonucleic acid or RNA. Once inside the living cell, the virus replicates the RNA and reproduces. And the third component is a lipid layer, which traps other parts of the virus. To understand the seriousness of the coronavirus and how it can be prevented, we need to keep these three parts in mind.
Although there are many species of coronavirus, only seven species can infect humans. Four of them cause very common sneezing and coughing symptoms throughout the year. These are alpha coronavirus, alpha coronavirus, beta coronavirus, beta coronavirus.
Also, Mars Cove (MERS-CoV) - a beta coronavirus that spread Middle East Respiratory Syndrome or MERS in 2012. SARS-CoV - A beta coronavirus that spreads acute acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS. The disease was first reported in China in 2002. The mortality rate is about 10 per 100 patients, yet the disease was quickly brought to the fore because the rate of human-to-human transmission was low. In all, about 7,000 patients were infected and about 800 died. Studies have shown that the virus entered the human body from a species of odorless species. The third type, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), is called the novel corona virus. This SARS cov-2 infects the human body with covid-19 or corona virus disease. This virus is called novel because this contagious virus has never spread to humans before. Another name for the virus is 2019-NCOV. The rate of human-to-human transmission is extremely high.
The infectious disease caused by contact with the newly discovered or novel corona virus is called COVID-19 or coronavirus disease. The first outbreak of the disease occurred in December 2019 in China's Yuan Province. Although the virus infects people of all ages, those who have low immunity and those who are older are more likely to be severely infected.
Can a coronavirus change its structure, that is, can it have mutations?
This question is important because the virus should not be considered an immutable object. Like any RNA virus, SARS COV-2 can easily change its structure. That is, when the virus spreads, it can change the structure of its genes as it pleases. The virus is transmitted from one human body to another with the modified structure of this gene.
So far, about 100 mutations have been observed in coronaviruses. As a result of repeated mutations, the virus can easily spread the infection by adapting to new environments and situations. But it is not possible to say at this time what effect the mutation has on the patient's symptoms. For him, the change must be noticed by collecting lots of samples and sequencing the virus.
What are the symptoms of COVID-19?
Symptoms of the disease are mainly fever, dry cough, fatigue. It can also cause colds, shortness of breath, sore throat, and diarrhea.
It has many similarities with the common flu or cold. Symptoms are very rare at first after being infected, then gradually increase. Sometimes it can lead to pneumonia and eventually multi-organ failure or death (14%). In some cases, the infected person has no symptoms or does not feel sick. About 80% of infected people recover without any such treatment.
In case of fever, cough or shortness of breath, go to the nearest doctor immediately. He will look into the matter and ask for an examination if necessary. For every six infections, one can have severe respiratory problems. People with low immunity, and the elderly (especially those with high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes) are at higher risk of contracting the virus.
How is the corona virus tested?
In fact it is possible to collect samples for this test anywhere. Usually a cotton swab is inserted into the patient's throat, with which saliva is collected and sent to the laboratory. Blood tests can also be done to detect the presence of antibodies in the rapid test. But perhaps only China has that test system.
Although the process of collecting samples is simple, the process of testing it in the laboratory is quite complicated. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction is performed with the sample. Any polymerase chain reaction (PCR) occurs in the DNA of the cell. However, since the corona virus is an RNA virus, in the first step of the test, if the patient has a virus in a sample obtained from the body, his RNA is first converted into DNA. The presence of the virus in the sample can be easily deduced from the replication of the DNA, which is then counted in the PCR method. In that case the affected person is called corona positive. And if there is no virus, no copy is made. In that case the affected person is called corona negative. It takes 24 hours for test results to come. However, in the case of large sample tests, it may take 48-62 hours to perform all the steps at once.