The 12 indigenous devils, Plasencia and the demonization of the natives

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The conquerors' view of indigenous peoples when they arrived in the archipelago was related to their unique beliefs. Because they are incompatible with their own European Catholicism, the devil's beliefs are always viewed as inferior, uncivilized and inventive.

Since the Spanish occupation was at the heart of the Reconquista, the expansion of religion became part of colonial occupation. Instead, all non-Catholic beliefs are considered devilish beliefs that must be suppressed, suppressed, and erased to be replaced by 'right' beliefs. On the Iberian peninsula Reconquista began.

In effect, the Spanish monarchs wanted to recapture and recapture lands that they thought had been confiscated by non-Catholics in their land. From the very beginning of the marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla to the making of Spain as a town, it had wanted to rid the Moro people of the south of the Iberian peninsula over their more than 500 inhabitants, such as the towns of Granada, Cordoba , and other southern towns.

The Muslim and Jewish traditional opponents of the Catholics are at stake in the Reconquista campaign. The Catholic Monarchs (the popular name among the Spanish monarchs because of the Reconquista), wanted their land to be pure Catholic.

They need to advance this campaign as part of the Patronato Real that combines church and state power, and considers the monarchs as the main church patrons in expanding Catholicism and combating other beliefs. This expansion occurred as the Spaniards expanded outside Iberia. When they arrived in America, Africa and Asia, their occupation became part of the expansion of religion.

The zeal of subjugation led to the expansion of religion, and the expansion of religion maintained the spirit of zealous subjugation. When the Spaniards arrived in the archipelago, one of their observers was the native belief of the societies they would occupy. They record these indigenous beliefs in order to show that the devil guides their old belief that Catholicism must replace them.

One of the earliest ethnographic records was made by Franciscan Juan de Plasencia. According to his note (some parts were translated into English in Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, Vol. VII, 185-196. - FG translation is mine), 12 examples can be given of the works and characteristics of the native devils:

The following are the various priests of the devil:

  • First, the female or male is called the catalonan. His work is honorable to indigenous peoples, and it is often practiced by people of high social status, a feature commonly seen in the archipelago.

  • The second is called a healer, or witch, who pretends to cure the sick. Their effects can be fatal, which can also be fatal. In this way, they can kill someone if they want, or they can extend one person's life to another year by pinning the snake's waist, believed to be the devil. There are many such ones throughout the archipelago.

  • The third is dispersed, as is the diffuser. These priests have the power to use an anointing on their lovers to separate or not to have sex. If a woman is left behind because of the anointing, she will get sick and bleed. They can also be found in the archipelago.

  • The fourth is mancocolam, which is used to put out fires at night, usually once a month. This fire could not be extinguished except by the mud that had washed into the mud and had dropped into the houses; and whoever lives in that house shall die. There are many like this in the archipelago.

  • The fifth is the hocloban, which is another kind of witch, which has more power than the magician. Without any medicine, just by saluting or raising a hand they can kill anyone they want. But if they want to heal the sick with their charms, they can use it with a different charm. In addition, they can even fire any indigenous people they oppose, without any equipment to use. It is found in Catanduanes, north of Central Luzon.

  • The sixth is the umbrella, which can take and eat the liver of anyone who looks white. It is also found in Catanduanes. This is not a legend, because in Calauan, a Spanish lawyer broke his body from the buttocks to the intestines, and was buried in Caliraya by Fray Juan de Merida.

  • The seventh will take off, intended to show anyone at night, without head or toe. This devil walks as he carries or pretends to carry his head elsewhere, and in the morning returns to his body, staying alive as before. I think this is just a myth even though the natives say they are true because they are believed by the devil. This happened in the Catanduanes.

  • The eighth is the junction, which corresponds to the 'sorcerer'; it is said that someone saw them fly, and killed and ate human flesh. They are found in the Visayas and do not exist in Tagalog.

  • Ninth is a regular type of witch called the devil. They use magic words, stone, and wood for lovers to enter into the heart of love. They do this to mislead people, through the work of the devil.

  • Tenth is called sonat, which may be equivalent to a preacher or predicador. He helps people to die, so that he can give a prophecy of the salvation or judgment of the soul. People who are raised in society often do this, and it can be seen throughout the archipelago.

  • The eleventh is the promise, which foretells the future. They can be found throughout the archipelago.

  • The twelfth, the bayoguin, is a well-known female owner.

Because the invaders of the devils showed them, they indicated that the redemption of the natives would be obtained if they worshiped the faith brought by the foreigners. In this way, the natives had to renounce their old beliefs and worship the Gods that the conquerors brought.

It is strange that some Tagalog societies are much of Plasencia's discussion of his record, and not the indigenous societies we see in Mindanao, or the Mindoro Islands, and Cordillera indigenous peoples who have maintained the old faith. To date, the aforementioned groups have been considered a national minority because some of them remain in the pre-occupation beliefs.

The Tagalogs, as well as some ethnic groups that became part of the Spanish and of Catholicism, such as Ilokano, Kapampangan, Bikol, Waray, Hiligaynon and Sugbuhanon - formed the colonial majority in the occupied Spanish colony in the Philippines.

The indigenous, Igorot, Mangyan and other non-conquered peoples formed the minorities at the invaders' point of view. But looking at Plasencia's description of the sixteenth century on indigenous beliefs of the Tagalogs, its resemblance to the beliefs of the Indigenous, Igorot, and Mangyan remains to this day.

It is only proof that they are the societies of the Reconquista and the Inquisition of colonialism that have a lot in common with the former occupiers. Moreover, it is important to note that while Plasencia's bias against and insulting indigenous people and favoring colonialism is significant, his observations of gender equality in indigenous societies are clear in the areas of belief, governance and social condition.

Discrimination against women, as well as against women or middle sex, was brought about by colonialism. Obviously, indigenous societies were more liberal in their sexuality than colonial societies that carried European values.

There are many rumors today about indigenous peoples' struggle to justify the central government based in Manila. They have been traveling for years to express the desire to give them the opportunity to live comfortably with respect and recognition of their tradition and lifestyle.

They have been repeatedly addressed by many previous governments through violence, occupation, taking their land and mine and leaving their ancestral land. They shut down their schools, commercialize their ancestral lands or mine and evacuate them from their birthplace.

Some natives were forced to evacuate in fear and to avoid bombing their ancestral homeland. The ill-treatment of indigenous people who seem to be devils who must be threatened with extinction if not followed by the government reflects that many of today's Reconquista heirs have not seen much of the archipelago's resemblance to the ancient societies before it was conquered. of foreigners.

The colonizers have been demonstrating the demonetisation of indigenous peoples for centuries to legitimize their occupation, exploitation, and subjugation. Texts such as Plasencia's writings, though distinctive in their tone of sarcasm and diversity, show the similarities of indigenous peoples from different ethnic groups before the occupation.

The majority and minority of Philippine societies were the result of colonial occupation and of the unity of those who remained free, not the work of the devils.

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This is interesting, but you have doubled the text in one place. One of the occurrences of this should be removed:

"The Tagalogs, as well as some ethnic groups that became part of the Spanish and of Catholicism, such as Ilokano, Kapampangan, Bikol, Waray, Hiligaynon and Sugbuhanon - formed the colonial majority in the occupied Spanish colony in the Philippines. The indigenous, Igorot, Mangyan and other non-conquered peoples formed the minorities at the invaders' point of view."

Please look at that and set it right.

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3 years ago

Thank you so much I will work hard to improve my writing skills 😊 this is very helpful information

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3 years ago

Please can you remove also one occurence of "The indigenous, Igorot, Mangyan and other non-conquered peoples formed the minorities at the invaders' point of view." That is still there in double.

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3 years ago

Ok sorry I use English translator , and paste it here that's why it's double sometimes

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3 years ago

Thank u so much for reading my ARTICLE 😊

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3 years ago