Art is defined idiomatically as adornment and adornment, which is the design of a new creative thing and mastery of its work, and art is defined in particular as a personal skill that produces an aesthetic work that stimulates feelings of joy and pleasure in the human soul.
It can be said in short that it is a vision or intuition, as it presents an artist's image or In the form of a work of art, and its goal is the delivery of beauty, the arts are a link between man and nature. The elements of the artwork represent an imitation of elements in nature, and the artist transcends them with his creativity and imagination, and what inspires him with his insight.
The fine arts or the so-called fine arts include: music, poetry, prose, architecture, drawing, sculpture, dancing, singing, and acting. The word art is related to the plastic or visual arts that have common characteristics despite their differences.
There are many types of arts and differ, therefore; It is classified according to different foundations and criteria. Philosophers and aesthetics have worked hard in classifying arts, and the following are the most important classifications followed:
A. Kant classification
Kant divides the types of fine arts into three main types, which are as follows:
Plastic art is defined as everything that the artist takes from natural reality and then reshapes it in a new and different way from what is in nature according to his vision, ideas, and approach, and examples of plastic art sculpture and architecture.
Photography is one of the visual arts, and it is also called the art of physical appearance, and it includes photography and garden art.
The arts of playing with emotions
Sensory arts are the arts that affect the senses. Such as affecting the auditory sense, such as music, or affecting the visual sense, such as the art of drawing and painting, and if art affects more than one sense, it is called compound art. Like theater, opera, singing, and dancing.
B. Laspax classification
Lasix is a follower of the French Social School. It divides the arts into three parts:
The kinetic arts is one of the oldest arts, and this art gives the human being the impetus to move and drive, as it provides emotional connotations and meaningful messages, and the most prominent examples of this type of art are:
Dancin: It is considered one of the forms of physical movement, so the forms of dance vary, including ballet dancing, solo dancing, and dancing related to sublime and religious meanings, such as dervish dancing, and others.
Singing: It is a type of vocal movement art, as singing translates the feelings inside us into beautiful and expressive words that make the body harmonize and sway with them.
Musi: Researchers consider music to be subordinate to singing, which is the language of instrument vibration to transform feelings into a sound effect.
They are the arts that are based on mental harmony and are subject to logic, and they are arts that arouse admiration for their recipients with their beauty, and among these arts: architecture, photography, and sculpture. These arts are called static; But the name is related only to their financial condition, as for its artistic impact, it has an impact on the soul.
It includes the performing arts of poetry, comedy, tragedy, narrative,e and lyrical poetry. These types of arts combine literary arts, singing, and music.
C. Charles Lalu Classification
The French esthetician classified the art according to the Gestalt theory; It is a noun that describes the human ability to perceive and perceive, and its interaction with a complex group of elements in the simplest way. Among the combinations that Charles Lallo developed to classify the arts: the synthesis of hearing, which depends mainly on music, in addition to other compositions such as choral and orchestral, and the visual composition that indicates Visual interaction with artistic elements, such as drawing, engraving on glass, and cinema.
As for the kinetic composition, it includes the arts related to physical movements, such as ballet and the composition of the work consisting of artistic work with several elements such as theater, and it differs from the composition that combines the material materials used by the artist in his work, such as architecture and sculpture, and the classification also includes the composition of language and poetry and the composition of sensitivity as the art of cooking.
D. Hegel's classification
The basis that Hegel took in his classification of the arts is based on the metaphysical philosophy of art, placing the arts in three levels depending on the relationship between matter and spirit, namely:
Symbolic arts :
It is at the first level; Where matter prevails over the soul; The art of architecture.
Classic Arts :
It isis the second level. Where matter and spirit stand on one level; Sculpture.
Romantic arts :
It is the third level in which the soul prevails over matter. Shroud music, poetry, and photography.
E. Arab Islamic Arts
Refers Mstalaa arts Arabic to Islamic art which paints a picture of the existence of the angle of the Islamic perception of the universe, the human, life, This art features several characteristics make it unique is classified as art in itself, and these characteristics:
Abstraction and distance from mimicry.
Aversion to portraying objects and distance from anthropomorphic
Beauty and utility go hand in hand.
The approval of the objectives of Sharia.
The types of Arab-Islamic art were classified into many classifications. Such as the Harvard Fine Arts Library classification, the Sardar classification, and the Dutch Econclass, and below we mention the most important qualitative trends of the most prominent Arab-Islamic art in our contemporary world.
Decorative arts and Arabic calligraphy
The decorative arts called arabesque is one of the most distinctive fields of Islamic art, and an ornamentation is a group of units or shapes intertwined together, and its types include floral and geometric motifs, linear and animal motifs, while Arabic calligraphy is considered one of the most beautiful types of calligraphy, and it has received great attention as it is the medium that is preserved. By the Quran.
Islamic architecture arts
Islamic architecture varies between mosques, palaces, castles, guesthouses, mausoleum,s, and others, and it is a distinctive fine art that varies its styles depending on the design school that it follows; Such as the Mamluk School in Egypt and the Levant, the Moroccan School in Andalusia, the Iraqi Persian School, and the Ottoman School in Turkey.
Applied arts include handicrafts; Such as the ceramic, pottery, glass,s and textile industries.
Sculpture and photography
The art of sculpture and painting is considered one of the least interesting arts in the Arab-Islamic world, and the art of sculpture has spread in separate places. As for Iran, Iraq, Egypt, and Syria, as for photography, it was widespread in Iran.
The arts of music, singing,g, and dancing
These arts form an interconnected unit in Arab-Islamic art. Among the most famous forms in which these arts are known are: invocations, muwashahat, poetry, and among the most famous dances are Sufi dances.
Performing and acting arts
These arts are called the mass arts, and they include theater performance, film, and television.
The age of art can be considered the age of a person; Where ancient monuments reveal to us the beginning of the formation of the artistic sense of man; The invention of the tools necessary for survival in the Stone Age is considered a type of human discovery of the spirit of creativity in it, and art develops through the drawings discovered on the walls of caves and carved models that symbolize the deities they believe in.