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Oldest Civilizations

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Written by   153
1 year ago

This article of mine will compose some of the oldest civilizations that ever existed on planet earth.

Civilization can be defined as: " the whole that gathers within it all beliefs, values, traditions, laws, information, arts, and any habits, behaviors, or capabilities that an individual in a society can have."

Oldest civilizations

So following are some of the oldest civilizations:

1. Inca Civilization

The Inca civilization was considered the largest empire in South America during the pre-Columbian era, as this civilization flourished between 1438 AD and 1532 AD in what is currently known as Peru, Ecuador, and Chile (English: Chile). Its capital was Cusco or present-day Peru, and it is also famous for its castles and historical sites that still exist today.

2. A Civilization of Ancient Australians

The ancient Australian civilization is considered one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to nearly 75,000 years ago, and it is indicated that they first settled in Australia nearly 40,000 years ago and the indigenous people have lived in the continent for more than 50,000 years. They were divided into two main groups, namely: the indigenous peoples who were associated with the actual inhabitants of Australia at the beginning of the colonization of the island by Britain in 1788 AD, and the peoples of the Torres Strait Islands (English: Queensland) of the modern state of Queensland in Australia.

3. Jiahu civilization

The settlement of Jiahu (in English: Jiahu) is located in the central plain of ancient China, where the inhabitants of this civilization developed some aspects of Chinese culture, and most of them were rice farmers, in addition to the fact that many ancient pieces of music were linked to this civilization, including the psalms. The first Chinese writings dating back to this civilization.

4. Indus Valley Civilization

It Is the Valley civilization of Sindh ( in English: Indus Valley Civilization) of the oldest civilizations that originated in northwest India and Pakistan currently, specifically near the plain of the Indus, as evidence of religious practices of this civilization dating back to about 5,500 years BC, has agricultural settlements before starting Around 4,000 BC, and many towns and cities were established within this civilization by the year 2,600 BC, and this civilization is famous for a writing system that is considered a mystery until the present day, as all attempts to decipher it have failed, making it one of the least important civilizations in ancient times.

5. Aztec civilization

The history of the Aztecs civilization dates back to the beginning of the thirteenth century, and they are a Bedouin tribe that originated in northern Mexico in Central America, and their capital was known as Tenochtitlan, and this civilization was distinguished as a dominant force in central Mexico, thanks to them for developing an organization Complex social, political, religious, and commercial, through which it managed to control many of its neighboring cities by the fifteenth century.

6. Mesopotamia Civilization

The civilization of Mesopotamia (between the two rivers) located between the Tigris and Euphrates is the first civilization in the world, dating back to 10,000 BC. The fertility of the lands on which this civilization was based helped spread agriculture and domestication, as it has developed skills in Agriculture was one of the most prominent irrigation techniques that were dependent on the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, and agricultural societies were formed scattered and spread in different places in the land of Mesopotamia, and they grew and expanded until they became cities, the first of these cities was Uruk, which dates back to approximately 3200 BC.

7. Sumerian civilization

The Sumerian civilization is one of the civilizations that arose in Mesopotamia in the period between 4500-4000 years BC; Were the Sumerians settled in that region for the first time, as they were called the Abidis, who was considered the first power of the Sumerian civilization, as their power depended on agriculture, industry, and construction in addition to pottery making, and the Sumerians were able to expand their kingdom and extend their influence and control over different regions such as Uruk and Ur Lagash, and King Ur Namu is considered the most famous king of the Sumerians, thanks to which the first law of the land between the two rivers appeared.

8. Akkadian civilization

The Akkadian civilization is one of the civilizations of Mesopotamia, and it appeared in the period between 2234-2154 BC. Sargon of Akkadian established the Akkadian Empire, and with his military power, he was able to expand his kingdom and control the country of Sumer. The Akkadian Empire was the first empire with multiple cultures. It was distinguished for its foreign trade and advanced architecture, which was remarkably evident through the construction of ziggurats.

9. Babel Civilization

The Babylonian civilization is one of the most important civilizations that arose in Mesopotamia more than four thousand years ago, and the Babylonian state flourished and became one of the most important civilizations during the reign of Hammurabi, who was known for its written laws ( Hammurabi Law ), and the Babylonians were able to expand their rule until it reached the limits Their country to the Mediterranean Sea from the Arabian Gulf, just as the Babylonians were distinguished by their cultural and urban renaissance, as they built many huge and beautiful buildings, and this is evident in the Ishtar Gate, which is a testament to the beauty and mastery of architecture and their interest in decorating the Babylonians.

10. Assyrian civilization

The Assyrian civilization was established after the Assyrians controlled a group of regions in Mesopotamia, and then expanded in their kingdom during the reign of King Tukuluti Ninoruta I, who took control of Babylon, and their influence extended until they reached Palestine and Syria now. The Assyrian Kingdom was ruled by a group of great kings who played a major role in the development of the Assyrian civilization, such as Shalmaneser I and Sargon II.

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Written by   153
1 year ago
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