Keto diet and menu

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Avatar for Mihajlo_Dimic
2 years ago

The keto (ketogenic) diet dates back to 1921, when endocrinologist Dr. Henry Geilin, at the annual meeting of the American Health Association, presented his observations on the positive effect of therapeutic fasting on epileptic seizures. Now, almost 100 years later, Dr. Gailin would be surprised by the popularity of the keto diet.

Basically, the body can run on two different fuels. One is glucose, which we get from carbohydrates (rice, potatoes, bread, fruit ...), and the other is fat (olive oil, avocado, nuts ...). The keto diet is a diet with such a low carbohydrate intake that the body literally has to reorient itself mainly to the use of fat for fuel.

When the body is without or with very little sugar (glucose), fats are converted in the liver into energy molecules - ketones. Ketones change the role of glucose and physiological processes continue to run smoothly, especially the nervous system because the brain functions on glucose or in this case on ketones. That is why this diet is called the keto (ketogenic) diet.

For which groups of people, ie. in which conditions is the keto diet not recommended or should you be careful when switching and during the keto diet?

People suffering from type I diabetes / type II diabetes and on therapy must take into account blood glucose levels when switching to a low-carbohydrate diet or keto diet. Standard doses of medication should be reduced to prevent hypoglycemia. People suffering from type I diabetes should never go with a carbohydrate intake lower than 30g per day in order not to go deep into ketosis and thus prevent them from bringing the body into a state of ketoacidosis. The advice is that one meal must contain the optimal amount of carbohydrates (a cup of rice, beans, lentils, quinoa, buckwheat or oatmeal, a piece of up to two fruits for snacks, etc.).

When switching to a keto diet, people who suffer from hypertension may become too healthy for the medications they use. current dose. A diet with a low carbohydrate intake lowers blood pressure and that is the reason why you should consider reducing the dose in cooperation and on the recommendation of a doctor. Whenever you feel weak, tired, dizzy, check your blood pressure. In the first two weeks, increased sodium intake is recommended to eliminate, conditionally speaking, the side effects of ketosis (general weakness, headache, etc.), so if someone already has high blood pressure, they should not increase sodium intake because it would further increase blood pressure.

During pregnancy and breastfeeding, a diet with a very low carbohydrate intake should also be avoided, due to the development of the fetus, and later the baby due to the health status of the mother. The advice is that your daily intake should not be below 50 g of carbohydrates per day, and that is, for example. 3 pieces of fruit or a cup of rice, quinoa, beans, lentils, cereals, etc.

If you have health problems with the liver and kidneys, consult a doctor before starting a ketogenic diet. Also if your lipid status is bad.

Who is the ketogenic diet for?

Except in the above cases, the keto diet is intended for everyone who wants to lose weight quickly, establish control over appetite, have problems with bloating, gas, etc. The keto diet is associated with a number of other health benefits and improvement of the general condition, but there are no reference studies, research that confirms certain results with certainty. However, practice has confirmed in many cases the benefits of a ketogenic diet, such as:

treatment of prediabetes

controlling and in some cases treating type II diabetes

lowering ldl cholesterol

controlling and in some cases discontinuing therapy in the treatment of hypertension

improving mental abilities

stable high energy level

alleviation and resolution of problems in the digestive tract (stomach)

very positive effect in the treatment of epilepsy (reduction of epileptic seizures)

in the fight against migraines and headaches

in most cases it solves the problem of acne

reducing the consequences of Alzheimer's disease, slowing down the process, and in some cases improving the condition

Disadvantages of keto diet:

keto “grip”

muscle cramps


poorer training performance

bad breath (metallic taste in the mouth)

mild dehydration due to electrolyte imbalance

Keto flu manifests itself in the form of mild headache and dizziness, fatigue, lack of concentration and motivation. However, all these symptoms disappear within 7 days, as long as the body needs to get used to the alternative energy source.

The keto diet can also become a way of eating for the rest of one's life, without any consequences if the principles on which this diet is based are followed. It is even a recommendation for people who do not do hard physical work and the most physically demanding of them is doing housework, walking (walking) and possibly some activity once or twice a week. In most cases, people are on a keto diet until they reach the goal and then return to old habits which results in a return to the previous state because of which they decided on the diet. All It is important that after stopping the keto diet, you gradually return carbohydrates to your diet to a certain level that will not impair the results you have achieved.

How to start a keto diet?

An aggressive approach involves the elimination of all sources of carbohydrates and the intake of only fats and proteins. However, a far more acceptable method for most is the elimination of all sugars and refined products that contain carbohydrates and the use of only whole foods (food given to us by nature in its raw state or with the least possible thermal or chemical processing).

About 20 g of digestible carbohydrates should be taken from the whole food per day, so fiber is not counted and it is desirable to take as much as possible for digestion.

Protein intake should be about 1.5g per kilogram of body weight. If the protein intake is high, the entry into ketosis can be significantly slowed down or disabled, and it can also throw us out of ketosis because the excess protein in the body is converted into glucose. This is also one of the most common mistakes made. If the intake is lower than 1.5g per kilogram of body weight, the loss of muscle mass is safe, and thus the metabolism will be slower. So, be careful with your protein intake.

To your current fat intake, which you had before starting the keto diet, you need to add as much fat to make up for the calorie deficit you have created by reducing your carbohydrate intake. Eg. if you have reduced your carbohydrate intake by about 180g, you should add about 90g of fat. You can't make a big mistake with fat intake unless you have been in a big deficit for a long time, as a result of which the values ​​of thyroid hormones can drop, ie. “Slowing down the metabolism”. If you are above the optimal intake, the weight will decrease more slowly. If you feel hungry with the initial caloric intake, after 5 days you can slightly increase your fat intake (about 20g) and depending on the changes caused by the new intake and goals, increase, maintain or decrease the intake.

As you can see, you will need a table of the nutritional values ​​of foods or nutritionists.

Avoid eating out of habit. when you are not hungry. While a handful of nuts can help when you’re really hungry, it can also slow down the weight loss process if you do it out of habit.

Although the keto diet gives results without exercise, the benefits will be multiple if you add three workouts a week. It can be a combination of weight training and cardio training. Avoid long intense endurance workouts to minimize muscle loss and cause unwanted hormonal status. Exercise training should last 30-40 minutes, about 10 sets per large muscle group, or 7 per smaller. Number of repetitions 8 - 10, with a pause of 60 - 90 seconds. Practice high-intensity interval cardio training (HIIT) for a maximum of 20 minutes or low-intensity cardio training for the same duration. If you decide to separate cardio training from weight training or just do cardio training, the duration of HIIT training is the same, and you can extend low-intensity cardio training up to 60 minutes. Training will accelerate weight reduction and positively affect insulin resistance (IR) and thus alleviate the consequences of type II diabetes or even lead to a cure.

A night's sleep of at least 7 hours is very important in the whole process, as well as for general health. Lack of sleep leads to increased secretion of stress hormones, which causes a rise in blood sugar levels, slows down the process of ketosis and weight loss.

Foods to be excluded from use:

all sweets and snacks;

meat products

flour and all flour products

all juices (due to the high content of carbohydrates) - moderate amounts of berries are allowed

milk and yogurt;

legumes (beans, lentils, quinoa, peas, chickpeas) and root vegetables (all kinds of potatoes, beets, carrots, etc.);

all kinds of cereals

sauces (ketchup, mayonnaise, dressing, etc.);

alcoholic beverages

You will have to be very careful when buying groceries because a large number, especially those labeled as dietary, contain hidden sugars and other ingredients that are not good for general health and can drive you out of ketosis. Most meat products are suitable for the keto diet in terms of nutritional values, but due to the large amount of nitrates and nitrites, as well as other substances, they are not good for health.

Allowed groceries:

chicken, turkey, duck, beef, lamb, mutton, bacon, fish (salmon, mackerel, gilthead sea bream, sea bass, trout ..)


unprocessed cheese (mozzarella, cheddar, goat cheese), kajmak, butter (preferably from grazing cows)

cold pressed olive oil (for salads), grape seed oil, linseed oil, coconut oil (for storage)

nuts and seeds

green leafy vegetables, avocado

herbal spices

The diet should be based on these, and not on processed foods from bags, jars, cans, with various additives such as nitrates, nitrites, emulsifiers, dyes, etc.

Weekly diet plan


Breakfast: Bacon, eggs, and tomatoes

Lunch: Tuna salad with olive oil and mozzarella

Dinner: Salmon and grilled asparagus


Breakfast: Eggs, tomato, goat cheese

Lunch: Almond milk, avocado, cocoa powder, and stevia

Dinner: Ground beef,cheese and vegetables


Breakfast: Omelet with eggs and spinach

Lunch: Seafood with olive oil and avocado

Dinner: Lamb with parmesan cheese, kale and salad


Breakfast: Omelet with avocado, paprika, onion and spices

Lunch: Mackerel with grilled vegetables

Dinner: Chicken, cream cheese, with vegetables


Breakfast: avocado, raw as well as berries

Lunch: Dynasty beef in coconut oil and vegetables

Dinner: Eggs, cheese, bacon and vegetables


Breakfast: Omelet with bacon and cheese, spinach

Lunch: Beefsteak and asparagus

Dinner: Trout in coconut oil and avocado


Breakfast: Omelet with bacon and mushrooms, kale

Lunch: Burger with salad and cheese

Dinner: Beefsteak, eggs and nuts

Of the supplements, it is desirable to use a vitamin-mineral complex with a good ratio of electrolytes, the ratio and level of which can often be disturbed on the keto diet.

As for drinks, water, tea and coffee are allowed but without sugar and milk. Even a glass of wine is allowed.

There are a large number of recipes for preparing keto meals and desserts on the Internet. So bread, of course keto bread, as well as desserts are allowed on this diet. Only when preparing anything do you take into account the amount of food that is part of what you are preparing so that you do not go out of the nutritional framework.

How do you know if you are in ketosis and how deep?

Control is desirable and very simple with the help of keto tapes or sticks that you can buy at the pharmacy.

If you are between 0.5 and 1.5 mmol / l you are in a state of ketosis and you will have results, but not optimal and you can very easily get out of ketosis. The most stable and productive state is 1.5 - 3mmol / l.

Over 3mmol / l is more than necessary. Indicates the possibility that you are not consuming enough calories, and the results will not be any better than when you are between 1.5 and 3mmol / l. 8 - 10 mmol / l is impossible to achieve in healthy people, indicating ketoacidosis, which is possible only in people with type I diabetes.

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