Join 76,420 users and earn money for participation
read.cash is a platform where you could earn money (total earned by users so far: $ 545,148.38).
You could get tips for writing articles and comments, which are paid in Bitcoin Cash (BCH) cryptocurrency,
which can be spent on the Internet or converted to your local money.
Professor Murray died in May of this year, at the age of 90. Just as scientists such as Paul Dirac, Shinichiro Tomonaga, Julian Swinger, and Richard Feynman developed quantum electrodynamics (QED), so did the tradition of quantum electromagnetism. . Feynman and Murray Gayle-Mann worked side by side at the Caltech Institute in California at the same time. Murray died in this conflict-no less than Feynman's quality of talent and achievement, but the way Feynman took science to students through the Feynman Lecture Series, or became popular by making it easier to describe the interaction of theoretical physicists with Feynman diagrams. There was no opportunity to compete for quality. However, near Gail-Mann, we have found that one of the foundations of nature is strong interaction, which holds protons and neutrons together in an atom. In that sense, it is possible Dmitry Mendeleev was a modern-day man.
In the 1940s and '50s, physicists used quantum and special relativity to get a complete picture of how electrically charged particles exchange photons and interact with each other; This is Quantum Electrochemistry (QED). Nuclear strong and weak interactions were still unknown. In high-powered particle machines, scientists were looking for a lot of transient particles, but did not understand their relationship to protons, neutrons or electrons. However, they thought that the origin of these particles could be explained by a force other than the electromagnetic ball. Hideki Yukawa, a Japanese scientist, developed a theory in 1935 that the exchange of an imaginary particle called a payon could cause attraction between protons and neutrons. In 1946, pion or pie mason particles were discovered among the particles (cosmic rays) coming from space. It will be seen later that protons, neutrons and pion particles are all composed of quarks and (gluons); Protons and neutrons are made up of three quarks and pion is made up of two quarks. Particles with three quarks (or even numbers) are called baryons and particles with two quarks (or even) are called masons. The Hadron family was created by Barion and Mason.
To understand the progress of the next science, we need to introduce two concepts. One is isospin, the other is strangeness. The concept of isospin is very similar to that of electron spin, as electrons can have +1/2 and -1/2 spins, scientists (Heisenberg seems to be the first to think this) thought that protons and neutrons are two forms of a particle. If the isospin of the particle is +1/2 then proton and if it is -1/2 then it will be neutron. Here spin or rotation is not the rotation of classical mechanics, that is, it is not the rotation that we are constantly acquainted with, but rather it is one of the underlying properties of the particle, which cannot be described visually.
By compiling a list of particles discovered in a particle machine, Murray discovered another inherent property, such as isospin. He called it strangeness. If a particle is converted to a proton, its strength will be -1, if it is converted to antiproton (anti-protons), its strength will be +1. If a strange particle takes more time (10-10 seconds) to transform into another strange particle, its strength will be more-2, if it takes less time (10-24 seconds) its strength will be -1. Now we know that the strength interaction preserves the strength number of the particles, not the weak interaction.
Gail-Mann arranged several images based on strength and isospin, each with eight particles (Figure 2). He was very enthusiastic about language, philosophy, music, archeology, so he named this octagonal conference the eight-fold way according to the Buddhist tradition, whose Bengali is the octagonal approach. We need to analyze Figure 2 with some time. Since the concept of quark has not yet been established we will ignore the quark marks first in the figure. The figure shows a total of three axes, isospin with I3, strength with S and electric charge with Q. For example, the strength of protons is 0, isospin is 1/2 and electric charge is +1, on the other hand - particle strength is 2, isospin is 1/2 and electric charge is -1. The two particles and their strengths are 1, isospin 0 and electric charge 0; They are located in the center of the hexagon. The image may indicate a deep symmetry in nature, but it took a while for the quality to recover. He heard the symmetry of the Lee group from a mathematics professor at Caltech. In the nineteenth century, Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie developed a group theory where a group called Special Unitary SU (3) is found; Gone with SU (3) –Mann unveiled the mystery of his eightfold path.
Gail-Mann saw that although 6 (Figure 2) or 10 (Figure 4) particles were going to be replicated with SU (3), the simplest replica — a triangle — could not be found. Whereas in SU (3) the triangle is a fundamental group. Gail-Mann thought that such a triangle could be found, if we think of a kind of particle called quark, whose electric charge is not a whole number. He thought of three types of quarks, up (u), down (d) and strong (s). (How did you get the name Mann Quark, that's also an interesting story, it was put up for later due to lack of time). Their electric charge will be +2/3, -1/3 and -1/3 respectively, and on the other hand isospin number will be +1/2, -1/2 and 0. Figure 3 shows this triangle group. Using this basic group, it is very easy to construct the non-aligned path or the larger triangle in Figure 4.
The 10-particle replica that was found with SU (3) helped Mann to predict an undiscovered new particle. When Figure 4 was formed, the particle at the top of the bottom had not yet been discovered. In 1982, Gail-Mann stated that the undiscovered particle would have a strength of -3, an isospin 0 and an electric charge -1. If the reader looks at Figure 4 carefully, he will understand how it went - Mann came to this conclusion. This undiscovered particle was named Omega Minus, which was captured in a particle in 1974. The outline and quark model of SU (3) were established in strong mystics.
But the history of science is such that when experiments and theories reach such a place, there is no shortage of people to think about its results. An Israeli scientist named Yuval Niman came to the same conclusion about the same time as Gail-Mann was discovering the relationship between the octagonal path and SU (3). Around the same time that Gail-Mann was thinking about quarks, a Russian-American scientist named George Tsvig wrote an article on the concept of quarks, which was later published. Weig named the new particles ace.
The introduction of the concept of quarks made it possible to understand the properties of all atomic particles. The proton consists of two up (u) and one down (d) quark, so its charge will be +2/3 + 2/3 - 1/3 = +1. Isospin is +1/2 + 1/2 - 1/2 = +1/2. The neutron consists of an up and two down quarks +2/3 - 1/3 - 1/3 = 0 charge and +1/2 - 1/2 - 1/2 = -1/2 isospin. In this model the mason particles, such as pie mason or mi mason are made up of two quarks. On the other hand, medium quality heavy particles, such as electrons, ions, and tau particles, which are not made of quarks, do not participate in strong interactions, but in weak interactions. They are called leptons.
The problem is that according to Pauli's principle of exclusion, two particles cannot be in the same quantum state. Figure 4 shows that omega minus is made up of three strong quarks, their isospin, electric charge, strangeness, all the same. The two u quarks located in the proton have the same phase. To get rid of this crisis, in 1964, Oscar Greenberg, an American scientist, said that quarks have quantum properties in addition to electrical charge, isospin and strength. Gail-Mann called this stage color. Of course, color here means a quantum property, it has nothing to do with actual color. A quark can have red, blue or green colors. These colors (which are not actually colors) are strong interactions, that is, there is a color charge of quarks in addition to electric charges. But protons have no color charge as a whole, which means that the three quarks in a proton must have three different colors, such as red, blue, and green, so that their mixed colors are white or chargeless.
From here began the triumph of quantum alphabet. Up, down and strong quarks are called flavors of particles and quarks of every taste have color again. The taste of the particles is again opposite, counterup, counterdown and countertrange. Again, the colors have opposite or opposite colors: red, green and emerald. According to the symmetry of SU (3), red, green and blue are placed on the three ends of an equilateral triangle and the triangle is rotated, but the QCD theory will not change. That is, a red up quark cannot be separated from a blue up quark. The fact that the position of the color is changing due to this rotation, but there is no change in reality, means that any color will remain unchanged in the strong mysticism, that is, the colors that will take part in the interaction will come out. Since red, blue, or green quarks are the same thing, they are a kind of symmetry, which initiates a quantum field (this discussion is reserved for the future due to the scarcity of space and time). This field is created by a kind of exchange particle called gluon.
As photons are the medium of electromagnetic ball, gluon is the medium of strong interaction. The mass of both photons and gluons is zero, the charge of both is zero. Gluon, on the other hand, has a color-charge, meaning that the gluon carries the same color as the quark. A gluon can be broken down into two gluons, again two gluons can interact with each other to create two new gluons, photons cannot do these. A gluon can be broken down into a quark and a paraquark, and a quark and a paraquark can combine to form a gluon. This means that not only are there three quarks in a proton or neutron, but innumerable quarks-paraquars are constantly being created and destroyed. Figure 6 shows a green quark being transformed into a blue quark by radiating green and paranoid gluons. A blue quark, on the other hand, is turning into a green quark by assimilating a green and paranoid gluon. Green and blue are coming and being converted to blue and green, colors are being saved. Each gluon is made with one color and one color. In this reaction but up quark is not being converted down or down quark up. So the color of the gluon quark only changes, not the taste. In order to change the taste, that is, to make you down or down, we have to resort to weak interactions.
The quarks between protons and neutrons are connected by the gluon field, but the protons and neutrons within the nucleus are bound by the payon exchange or the quark-paraquark exchange. Such a process is shown in Figure 6. The twisted lines there refer to gluons. It can be said that the exchange of pine particles is a distant effect of the gluon field. The effective distance of a strong interaction is not very large, 10-15 meters, equal to the size of a medium-sized nucleus, followed by electric repulsion between protons. This type of electric repulsion destabilizes large nuclei like uranium and causes their radioactive decay.
Quarks were not isolated in very high-strength experiments on particulate matter. The main reason for this is that the quarks are connected to each other with the flux of gluons, and when energy is applied to separate the two quarks, a new pair of quarks is formed from that energy. Later it was found that the quark family was not only confined between up, down and stencils, skin, top and bottom quark were discovered. But that story is not for now. Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1989 alone for his contribution to the discovery of strong interactions.
Murray Gayle - Mann was an outstanding talent. His parents came to America as immigrants. At the age of 14 he was admitted to Yale University and at the age of 21 he received his PhD from MIT. I started this post by comparing Gail with Feynman. Feynman and Gail-Mann had the opposite personality, Feynman did not borrow any formality, on the other hand Gail-Mann was formal — always wearing a suit-tie — an intellectual who is both a scientist and a linguist, who gives us nouns like quark, strength, color and gluon. Gave. Murray Gail-Mann may have regretted that his name was not as popular as Feynman's, but Gelman's name is more likely to be long lasting in physics. Because, he discovered Quark, the main element of nature.