Have you noticed the dog? He knows the people of the house where the pet dogs live. Suddenly, when he sees a suspicious visitor, he barks and shouts. Whether you have a dog guarding your home or not, on the one hand, like all the animals around you, there is something in your body that protects you from unnecessary harassment. That is your immune system.
What would happen if your house dog chased you? But it will never happen. Likewise, your immune system never attacks your body, it attacks invaders or strangers. It is about how the body separates itself and the next thing. This article is about that mysterious business.
French scientist Jules Hoffmann, while working with the Drosophila melanogestar, observed innate immunity. He and his colleagues showed that by changing a particular gene in flies, their resistance to infection is greatly reduced. It was then confirmed that immunity had been developed in the fauna by genetic means. However, the role of innate immunity in the body of vertebrates is not so much. Adapted immune systems have been developed to deal with new diseases, which can be suppressed at the sight of any new germs. Suppression takes place in three levels: two non-specific, and one specific.
The largest organ of the human body is the skin. The germs have to penetrate the skin and enter the body. There is a layer of lipids around the skin to protect it. In addition, there are some good bacteria living in our skin, which prevent the pathogens from attaching to the skin. That is what prevents all germs from entering the body. But the skin is not intact. There are pores in the skin, there are nostrils, there are eyes, germs want to enter through these. But the funny thing is, every hole has a defense. Saliva or saliva of the mouth and mucus of the nasal cavity, lysozyme enzymes of the eye will be active against it. Suppose you swallow a germ, in fact hundreds of such germs enter the digestive tract with your food. They are hydrochloric acid secreted from the parietal cells of the stomach. But many bacteria are acid-loving, they live comfortably there. But as soon as they cross the stomach, they enter the intestines and die in the alkaline environment of Peter.
Somehow, some germs got into your body. What will the body do now? Its two main tools are fever and inflammation. Excessive secretion of pyrogen (a type of protein secreted by white blood cells called phagocytes) causes the blood vessels to constrict, leading to an increase in body temperature. Then it becomes difficult for germs to work. And when there is inflammation, the armed forces of the body run away - white blood cells. Eighty percent of it is neutrophils. They travel throughout the body and eat germs in the process of phagocytosis. Monocytes do the same thing.
Of course, it changes its form into macrophages. They trap germs by creating ephemerals, then induce intracellular digestion of germs by the action of lysosomal enzymes. Eosinophils and basophils react to allergic antibodies and parasites.
Suppose, after so many things, some pathogens entered your body. Pathogens are pathogens. And what he emits is called antigen. Now your body's non-specific immune system fails to stop the germs. So now your body has to find another way. Now your body has to gain immunity, that is the third level of defense. Just as the antigen of each pathogen is different, so is its cure. It is made up of five types of immunoglobulin-like proteins IgA, IgM, IgG, IgE and IgD. These are called antibodies. Each antibody has a variable edge that is unique to a specific antigen. Antibodies are synthesized in plasma cells in lymph nodes under the direction of T lymphocytes. And once the antibody is made, its description is recorded in the body. This is done by another type of long-lived B lymphocyte, similar to plasma cells, which we call memory cells. Therefore, once an infectious disease occurs, it is less likely to occur later. And vaccines are made using this special feature of resistance to diseases of the spinal cord. British physician Edward Jenner discovered the vaccine by working on a smallpox disease. This method basically kills or weakens the germ and injects it into the body, so that the body synthesizes antibodies against it and stores it in the memory cell.
On three levels the dog guards your home, yet you get sick. These are of no use, so it seems? Imagine for a second you were transposed into the karmic driven world of Earl.
Keep thinking, if your dog barks when he sees you, that means if your immune system starts killing your healthy-strong cells, what will happen? The answer is no - or I gave, think, then look at the reference.