I better called the world as a preserver and protector as well as promotor of the consequences, in which every action here stages the others. In our world, the incidents happen within the chains. It never happened that something appears from nowhere. To get an apple from the Apple tree we must plant it, see it growing, it times comes produces flowers and turns into an apple. The world is not a place where miracles happen. Everything happens here being chained to the previous action.
While I'm into this point I remember a short story, it is relevant here,
After the Mahabharata war, the final war, Lord Krishna gets curse by Gandhari, as " You killed my all 101 sons, I will curse you, Krishna, that one day as mine you will also lose your all succeeding generations".
Lord Krishna says," I accept your curse, I know that everything is linked here. If my coming generation does something wrong then they should be ready and I would be ready to accept the consequences"
At last, even Lord Krishna can't stop the curse from being implemented.
Let's get back to the topic, and one thing more point that I would like to mention is that everything happens here within the principle of consequences, when we talked about the results, we find that they follow the rule of nature as well as makes relation in some way with the existence.
This in this way we are linked to everything that happened in the past and everything that will happen in future. That's, is why the present is taken as the crossing point where three-time references exist.
Today we try to understand the French revolution, what caused it, what happened and how others parts of the world got influenced by it?
To understand deeply the causes we must see every aspect. And here we will do it
Before 1215, the monarchy was ruling being despotic. The rule was arbitrary, anarchic. And in 1215, Manga Carta was a sign that gave a right for people to take some space in governance. At that phase, people were not organized. So monarchy understood and began to rule the state with help of some groups of people i.e. federal and church (priests). The power was distributed among them.
With the establishment of the bottom empire, the search for a new world gave the rise to the Atlantic slave trade, which was the start of capitalism. With the introduction of capitalism, a new group of people started to make a place in society they were middle-class people they were businessman's and higher than lower-class people.
The monarch took its support at first and suppressed priests and feudal in around 15-18th century. At this phase, middle-class people became organized, economically strong and now they started to raise a voice that they need someplace in power-sharing.
These immediately impacted to monarchy and it resulted in to form of a collection between monarchy, feudal and the church to fight against the new class of people.
While making the collection, the monarchy accepted them giving privileges.
The society was divided between mainly two-class people, one was a privileged class that was (feudal, church(priest), monarch) who enjoyed the power and they were out from the tax system. Even they collect and raise the taxes. This division in society gave discontentment to the middle-class people.
If we see the population growth in France, in 1715 it was 2.3 million and in 1789 it was 2.8 million, the population growth rate was high. And in 1788 and 1789, there was a crops failure situation in which one-year crips were destroyed by excess rainfall while in another year by dearth, which hurt food security, which was the reason for the subsistence crisis.
As we know latter the association of Roman empires feudals come to power and they were suppressed by the monarch with the help of
But now to suppressed the middle-class people monarchy took help from the first estate class i.e priests and the second class were feudal. Power was shared, this made feudal and church powerful.
These made the monarch feel a decline in the power and prestige of the monarch.
We can remember that Louis 14, quoted," I AM THE STATE, STATE I AM". This statement indication is that monarch wasn't ready to discard despotic behaviour.
This was the message with the message that we are the power of the state, so, take us as the state, other feuds, church are not.
There were many wars between France and England. But the war is known as The seven years war (1756-1763). These brought a decline in the economy. The decline happened after a long period of prospered. State expenses were increasing day by day.
These made monarch and privilege class people impose more tax rate, which was opposed by the non-privileged class.
When we see the economic condition of France in 1730-1740 there was a huge increase in growth rate but git in crisis in 1770-1780.
Montesquieu, The spirits of law, separation of powers; John Locke: Two treatises of government: criticise of the monarch; Voltaire, the letters of the English nation, his writing were more focused on religious tolerance; Rousseau most writing on inequality in society; Denis Diderot and others played a vital role in contributing for preparation of the atmosphere for the revolution
In any kind of revolution, it takes place and lives forward with the intellectuals created atmosphere. Some historians believe that without intellectual any revolution doesn't happen.
When monarch used to take an important decision it would call a session which includes representatives of all their estate.
In 1614 on the time of Louis 13, was the last date other session and was held to king calls on 1789 after 175 years. Louis 14 and 15 ruled without the parliament and Louis 16 calls to increase the taxes.
300 from first estate and another 300 from second estate and 600 from the third estate, total of 1200 but one class people vote was counted as one, this there were 3 votes.
But this time, they demanded each headcount in which the king didn't agree which ended in taking the tennis court oath on 20 June 1789.
Here, one thing we must note is that for who the revolution was for? What were their demands?
Let's be cleared that those people who took the oath in tennis ground were moreover from middle-class people. And when they were gathered there writing and making decision rumours were going on that monarch suppression will be soon. Now, this rumour made an entry to new entry in the situation they were lower-class people, common people.
They gather around the tennis court in such a way that to get into court was difficult for any army. This was called the "mob of Paris "
In this phase what happened:
Abolition of feudalism
Declaration of man and citizen rights
The church lost its power.
Limited franchise(only limited to middle-class people)
Coming to this time, middle-class people just born out of capitalism is against the power of monarch but not with monarch this they are ready to keep monarch under the constitution. Middle-class people were never against the property they have. In this phase, equality was adopted. And everyone to be treated equally.
The middle-class people were an advocate of changes but was not organised and lower-class people knew the cleverness of them. Now, common people took over the power and wrote the constitution in their favour.
At this phase, the declaration made were similar to American independence but the French Revolution moved further than it, with the jacobians.
As we know, middle-class people were with some property so they always talked about the security of property. And for this, they don't want radical change. So they never led their way to the grave of the monarch. This was understood by the mob of Paris. Now they came into power.
They introduced, socialism, republicanism,( throwing out monarch), democracy economic security was established.
And they too were also not strongly organized and at last, they lost their power and it went back to middle-class people.
Here, the jacobians regime started to kill people who were against their liberty which is known as the reign of terror.
Again the middle-class people took back the power and they discarded radical elements restored limited franchise. The reign of terror stop. Napoleon one of the representative of the middle class came to power and started to go on wars.
Rise of Napoleon, though he made curtailment of the revolution he carried away the resolutions to other parts of Europe.
Liberty comes with different meanings but when we see liberty in the french revolution, it stands with the freedom of middle-class people(business class people). Middle-class people were ready to give liberty to political and social aspects but not in economic because they don't want common people to get security in the economy. Because security to lower class means they have to given privileges. They are limited liberty to them, not to go down to lower class people.
And equality is understood as the opportunity for all. But as said earlier they don't want economic equality. Because they have to leave their property.
In the French revolution, when it comes to the talk of the franchise it was limited to responsible citizen ( who have private property), they don't want to give the right to all. This is what divided people into two classes, one as active and another as passive.
French Revolution attack on privileges not to the property because it was the revolution of middle-class people who hold some property. Thus, private property was preserved.
The nation-state was formed in 16th to 18th century, there was a division between monarch and people(subjects). And within-subjects, there were many division of people, clergy, nobles, middle class and commoners. The kind words were taken as the will of the state.
But after the French revolution, there was government and citizen where a citizen was seen on equal footing. And the philosopher Rousseau imprinted his words as the citizen will is the will of the state. That is the nationality. The concept of the sovereign right of citizen raised which was the starter of the modern sovereignty.
One man one vote
Democracy and socialism, we're the contributions of lower-class people which was not seen in American independence because power was not shifted to the lower class.
And these changes were carried to other parts of Europe.
The 19th century of Europe continues to fight against the legacy of the French revolution.
The impact made by the French revolution was tried to curtail by the middle-class people, they don't want to give liberty to lower class people they want to create the world as it was in 1789 before the jacobians.
This Vienna convention was held. But policeman of Europe was dissolved in the change that was cultivated by the French revolution.
The nationalism that arose from the French revolution unified Italy and Germany but the same nationality made an adverse effect on the Russian empire, Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg empire because there exist different kinds of tribes within the boundaries. Nationalism here paved a track for unification as well as disintegration simultaneously.
Middle-class people were driving everything towards their interest keeping lower class people in the shadow. Until there appear a leader Karl Marx. He studied all the revolution and concluded that middle-class leader will never do justice to lower class people due to a clash of interest. In 1848, he published the " communist manifesto".This publication made a clear line between middle-class people and lower-class people.
Now, lower-class people started a revolution against the middle class, this made middle-class people form a coalition with the monarch. Karl Marx wasn't successful until there appear "Vladimir Lenin".
The socialism which was for the lower class people was opposed by middle-class people with nationalism. This is why whenever there occurs a difficult situation or in political crisis, leaders start to control the sentiment of people with Nationalism.
It is the contribution of the French revolution that the world is divided into two concepts of capitalism and socialism. And when we see the power list of countries always there has been a second powerful country that belongs to the communist system.
It is an annexe aspect of the French revolution that we have seen the world accepting new types of system addressing both capitalism and socialism in the governance system with the concept that private sectors must also be given a role to play in markets whereas there are backward class people, lower-class people which needs protection thus monitoring the basic fundamental needs of people.
Thank you, for you time.