Judas Iscariot. Brutus. Benedict Arnold. These are nevertheless a couple of the various acclaimed characters we've come to connect with the word backstabber.
Lamentably for us, the Philippines has likewise had something reasonable of such characters. Incalculable demonstrations of bad form and turncoatism have without a doubt obscured a few sections of our set of experiences, their eventual outcomes actually being felt even up to now.
In spite of the fact that there are an excessive number of double-crossing Filipinos to list down, here are ten we feel have the right to be referenced because of their notoriety and the size of their slippery demonstrations:
1. Cecilio Segismundo.
Despite the fundamental animosity between the Tagalogs and the Kapampangans—explicitly the Macabebes—for the last's part in the catch of the Cavite-conceived Emilio Aguinaldo, it was really an Ilocano who begun the arrangement of functions prompting the catch of El Presidente.
A local of Ilocos Norte, Cecilio Segismundo originally functioned as a police for the Spanish however later abandoned to the Katipunan and afterward was alloted as a corporal and courier under Major Nazario Alhambra. A troubled Aguinaldo—squatted in the distant Isabela town of Palanan—had entrusted him to convey a significant letter to his subordinates mentioning fortifications and supplies.
Nonetheless, after nearly 30 days of journeying in the unforgiving hinterlands, Segismundo gave up to the Americans in Pantabangan town, Nueva Ecija. With the guarantee of a commission in the Philippine Army and a $300 reward, he uncovered the whereabouts of Aguinaldo, permitting the American General Frederick Funston to catch him.
Despite the fact that Aguinaldo would later say that the Americans strongly separated the data out of Segismundo, Funston's officials countered that he talked uninhibitedly subsequent to being all around took care of and while never being tormented.
2. Januario Galut.
Much the same as the Spartan King Leonidas' brave yet disastrous last remain against the Persians in the Battle of Thermopylae, General Gregorio del Pilar's gutsy yet sad end because of the Americans in the Battle of Tirad Pass was made conceivable gratitude to a double crosser.
As what his Greek partner Ephialtes accomplished for the Persians, Galut—a Christian Igorot—guided the Americans to a mystery pass that permitted them to surround the Filipino positions which had before stood firm against their rehashed invasion. Trapped in a pincer, the Filipinos kept on battling fearlessly however were overwhelmed by the Americans at long last. Among those executed was del Pilar who was hit by a slug to the neck as he was requesting his men to battle on.
Of the 60 unique safeguards, just 8 figured out how to get away. In any case, del Pilar's courageous postponing activity—which went on for five hours—against the mathematically predominant and better-equipped Americans purchased enough an ideal opportunity for Aguinaldo to get away and battle one more day. With respect to Galut, no accurate explanation can be given for his double-crossing; notwithstanding, it is conjectured that he encountered separation from his own comrades, inciting him to change to the American side.
3. Apolinario Alcuitas.
One of the most shocking functions to have occurred during the Revolution concerns the inopportune destruction of Katipunan pioneer Pantaleon Villegas, also called "Leon Kilat."
A local of Negros Oriental, Villegas was appointed by Emilio Aguinaldo to lead the arranged revolt in Cebu on Good Friday on April 8, 1898. Nonetheless, developing doubt by the Spanish specialists constrained him to dispatch the assault on Palm Sunday (April 3) rather, a function which would be known as the "Tres de Abril" revolt.
For some time, the Katipuneros prevailing with regards to overcoming the Spanish. Nonetheless, adversary fortifications from Manila constrained Villegas to look for shelter in the town of Carcar on Holy Thursday (April 7). Dreadful that the Spanish would fight back against them for holding the progressives, the town's chiefs drove by Florencio Noel and Fr. Francisco Blanco contrived to slaughter Villegas, with the professional killer to do the employment being in all honesty Villegas' confidant Apolinario Alcuitas.
In the early long stretches of Good Friday (April 8), he—and alongside a couple of others—cut and slammed Villegas to death while the last was sleeping soundly inside his room in the wake of being intoxicated with mixed beverages by his tricky hosts.
4. Makabayang Katipunan ng Ligang Pilipino (MAKAPILI).
Out of the apparent multitude of gatherings that teamed up with Japan during World War II, MAKAPILI turned into the most notorious and detested.
Headed by the magistrate of previous Revolutionary General Artemio Ricarte, Pio Duran, and previous Sakdalista Movement organizer Benigno Ramos, the MAKAPILI appeared after the Japanese began to recruit Filipinos to enlarge their military powers. Be that as it may, its individuals became dreaded not as a result of their battling ability but since of their deceptive conduct which included spying and selling out their own kin.
At whatever point a town or a town was associated with guerrilla action, the Japanese would gather together the occupants and afterward let the MAKAPILI individuals—who secured their appearances with bamboo bins aside from their eyes—call attention to the presumed guerrillas or their supporters. Thusly, numerous Filipinos, including the guiltless ones, were hauled off by the Japanese to be tormented and executed.
5. Antonio Surabao.
In spite of the fact that his name isn't also known as the others, Antonio Surabao's treacherous demonstration in the "Tondo Conspiracy of 1587" makes him similarly as meriting as a portion of his more renowned partners.
A worker of Pedro Sarmiento, the Spanish encomiendero who controlled Calamianes, Palawan, Surabao got aware of a blending trick brought forth by noticeable datus and aristocrats from Pampanga, Manila, and other Tagalog zones to oust the Spanish. Driven by any semblance of Agustin de Legazpi (Lakandula's nephew), Magat Salamat (Lakandula's child), and Tondo gobernadorcillo Martin Pangan, the backstabbers planned to crush the Spanish by enlisting more partners from different spots, including Borneo and Japan.
On the way to Borneo, Salamat made a visit at Calamianes where he likewise requested the assistance of a neighborhood boss and that of Surabao. Rather than participate, in any case, Surabao told his lord who at that point promptly educated the experts in Manila regarding the connivance. Accordingly, all the plotters were gathered together and condemned to substantial disciplines.
The Spanish beheaded de Legazpi and Pangan and put their heads on a gibbet as a notice to other people while Salamat was likewise executed and his property seized by the legislature. Then, the other co-plotters were made to pay weighty fines and go through outcast.
6. Miguel Vicos and Pedro Becbec.
We can just conjecture what may have happened had this devious team neglected to kill Diego Silang.
Prior to his demise, Silang had been gigantically fruitful in his uprising against the Spanish, in any event, turning into the legislative head of Ilocos Sur. Compromised by his developing force and on the grounds that the British—the inhabitants of Manila and Spain's primary foe at that point—aligned themselves with Silang, the Spanish tried to have him killed.
There are many clashing forms of the thought processes of the two in slaughtering Silang. Some hold that Vicos held resentment against him or was actuated by the Spanish pastorate to kill him. In another, the Spanish guaranteed Becbec an enormous award to slaughter Silang. Whatever the adaptation, it is concurred that the pair went to Silang's central command in Vigan and deceptively shot him while his back was gone to them.
As an end-result of his endeavors, Vicos was later answered to have been remembered with a sculpture of a canine on a landmark by the Spanish in Bantay, Ilocos Sur as acknowledgment for his "dedication" to Spain. Becbec, then again, was said to have been wounded to death by Silang's widow Gabriela when he was being strutted around town by the Spanish as their saint.
7. Dominador Gomez.
A specialist, a proselytizer, and a work chief, he had driven association strikes against American organizations and conveyed blazing discourses against dominion before he was at long last captured by the Americans in 1903. Yet, rather than picking to mull in jail, he offered his spirit to the demon and consented to be the American messenger to persuade Sakay to descend from the mountains.
The alluring Gomez prevailing with regards to convincing Sakay and his men to surrender their arms with the guarantee that the Americans would in the end concede freedom and self-government to the individuals. Shockingly for Sakay, the Americans captured him when he showed up at Cavite.
In his indignation, Macario Sakay's official General Leon Villafuerte requested to realize what was going on. Gomez was said to have articulated, "There's no utilization battling." Incidentally, the argument against Gomez was later excused and he proceeded to serve in the First Philippine Assembly.
8. Teodoro Patiño.
Inferable from Teodoro Patiño's revelation of the Katipunan's presence to the Spanish specialists, we may never know whether the Revolution would have ended up for the Filipinos since during that time, the progressives were as yet bustling social event more men and arms for the uprising.
Much more unfortunate, the purpose behind Patiño's disclosure to the specialists was excessively insignificant: a compensation question.
There are various adaptations of the story, with one saying that he and a katipunero named Apolonio de la Cruz battled about a two-peso wage increment in their printing shop. A physical squabble between the two constrained the shop to shut down, and an ensuing pursuit by Spanish specialists yielded records and materials having a place with the Katipunan.
In another form, the two men were katipuneros who were additionally occupied with a compensation contest, provoking Patiño to tell his sister Honoria (likewise his better half in one more form) about the mystery society. Honoria, thus, uncovered the data to a head religious woman who at that point convinced Patiño to tell the ward cleric.
Regardless, the Spanish specialists got some answers concerning the Katipunan's presence on account of Patiño, driving its chiefs to dispatch an untimely uprising.
9. Felipe Buencamino.
There may have been numerous turncoats and balimbings during the Philippine-American War, however a couple can ostensibly coordinate the nerve of Felipe Buencamino.
As an appointed authority for the Spanish government, he had once kept in touch with a lead representative general urging "demise to the backstabbers who upset our public harmony and serenity." When the Revolution broke out, he at first favored the Spanish yet changed to the Filipino camp in the wake of being detained by the previous in Cavite. He later turned into an individual from Aguinaldo's own Cabinet and was even one of the composers of the Malolos Constitution.
In any case, the appearance of the Americans obliged him to switch sides once more, winning him and his kindred Americanistas the anger of the progressives. Truth be told, during a Cabinet meeting, the famously hot-headed patriot General Antonio Luna insulted Buencamino square and considered him a quitter for proposing to haggle with the Americans. The two would later meet again in a warmed showdown fourteen days after the fact on June 5, 1899—the day Luna was killed.
10. Pedro Paterno.
Maybe the one in particular who could top Buencamino's turncoatism is as a matter of fact Pedro Paterno himself.
Thought about a scholarly goliath, Paterno is recollected today as a driven rascal who changed sides at whatever point it fit him. Actually, antiquarian Ambeth Ocampo has considered Paterno the first balimbing, and as it should be.
A multi-skilled artist, author, and attorney, Paterno originally filled in as a middle person among Aguinaldo and Governor-General Primo de Rivera. Months after the fact, Aguinaldo would sign the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and leave on self-outcast to Hong Kong. As remuneration for his endeavors, Paterno mentioned a dukedom, a seat in the Spanish Senate, and installment of 1,000,000 Mexican dollars for his work, which were all dismissed.
Later when Aguinaldo returned, he wriggled his way into turning into the leader of the Malolos Congress and afterward as top of his Cabinet. At the point when the Philippine-American War broke out, he supported tolerating American sway, something that didn't agree with his archetype Apolinario Mabini and Antonio Luna.
After his catch by the Americans, Paterno officially exchanged sides and joined the American-supported First Philippine Assembly before at long last kicking the bucket of cholera in 1911.