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By Joy [I mean] a passion through which the soul passes to a greater perfection. For Sadness, a passion through which she passes to a lesser perfection

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), III, “On the origin and nature of affects”, scolie de la proposition 11, trad. C. Appuhn (1913)

The group thinks, feels, and acts quite differently than its members would if they were isolated

Émile Durkheim

“The Rules of the Sociological Method” (1895)

Publicity

The dream is a rebus

Sigmund freud

“The Interpretation of the Dream” (1900), trad. JP. Lefebvre, Seuil, 2010

Psychoanalysis wants to promote to conscious recognition that which in the life of the soul is repressed

Sigmund freud

“On psychoanalysis. Five lessons ”(1910), trans. F. Cambon, Flammarion, coll. Pocket, 2020

Self is not master in its own house

Sigmund freud

“A Difficulty of psychoanalysis” (1917), in: “The Uneasy Strangeness and other essays” (1919), transl. M. Bonaparte, E. Marty

Experience: this is the foundation of all our knowledge, and it is from there that it originates from

John locke

“Essay on human understanding” (1689)

The greatest and the main end that men propose to themselves, when they unite in community and submit to a government, is to KEEP THEIR PROPERTIES.

John locke

“Treaty of Civil Government” (1689), chapter 9, transl. D. Mazel, Flammarion, coll. GF, 1992

The idea that one must apply to oneself, take care of oneself ('heautou epimeleisthai') is […] a very old theme in Greek culture. […] It is this theme of self-care, consecrated by Socrates, that later philosophy took up and that it ended up placing at the heart of this “art of existence” that it claims to be.

Michel Foucault

“History of sexuality, III. Care for oneself ”, Gallimard, 1984

Power, quite simply, is it a war continued by means other than weapons or battles?

Michel Foucault

“We must defend society”, course at the Collège de France 1975-1976, EHESS / Gallimard / Seuil

We have never been freer than under the German occupation

Jean paul Sartre

“The Republic of Silence”, art. appeared in the review “Les Lettres Françaises” n ° 20 (September 9, 1944), in: “Situations, III. Literature and engagement (February 1947-April 1949) ”, Gallimard, 2013

The only limits that freedom encounters, it finds them in freedom

Jean paul Sartre

“Being and Nothingness” (1943)

As a being through whom values ​​exist, I am unjustifiable. And my freedom is worried about being the baseless foundation of values

Jean paul Sartre

“Being and Nothingness” (1943)

Man, being condemned to be free, carries the weight of the whole world on his shoulders

Jean paul Sartre

“Being and Nothingness” (1943)

I can only BE happy in the past […] the past is precisely ONLY this ontological structure which obliges me to be what I am BEHIND. This is what “was” means.

Jean paul Sartre

“Being and Nothingness” (1943)

Existence precedes essence

Jean paul Sartre

“Existentialism is humanism” (1946)

The disorder in one part can be reconciled with the harmony of the whole

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

“From the Original Production of Things Taken at Its Root” (1697), in: “Opuscules philosophiques”, trad. P. Schrecker, Vrin, 2001

At all times there is an infinity of perceptions within us […]

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

“New essays on human understanding” (1704, 1765), in: “Philosophical works of Leibniz”, volume I, text established by P. Janet, Félix Alcan, 1900

God is not the cause of evil […] the root of evil is in nothingness, that is to say in the deprivation or limitation of creatures

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

“Discourse on metaphysics” (1686)

All substance is like a whole world and like a mirror of God or of the whole universe, each one expresses in its own way, roughly like the same city is variously represented according to the different situations of the one who looks at it.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

“Discourse on metaphysics” (1686)

From an infinity of possibilities, God chooses the best

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

“Correspondence de Leibniz et d'Arnauld, 1686-1690”, in: ”Philosophical works of Leibniz”, volume I, text prepared by P. Janet, Félix Alcan, 1900

It is not only that all strengthening of social bonds, and all healthy growth of society, endows each individual with a stronger personal interest in seeing the welfare of others in practice; it also leads him to identify his feelings more and more with their good […]

John Stuart Mill

“Utilitarianism” (1871), chapter 3, trans. Mr. Lemoine

It is the sum of the particular interests which constitutes the general interest

John Stuart Mill

“Utilitarianism” (1871), trad. P. Folliot, 2008

But what am I? Something that thinks. What is that ? It is indeed a thing which doubts, which knows, which affirms, which denies, which wants, which does not want, which also imagines and which feels

René Descartes

“Metaphysical Meditations” (1641), second meditation

Real duration is what has always been called time, but time perceived as indivisible

Henri bergson

“Thought and the moving” (1934), “The perception of change”, GF Flammarion, 2014

To move from intelligence to vision, from the relative to the absolute […] one must […] take a long-term view and recapture reality in the mobility which is its essence.

Henri bergson

“Thought and the moving” (1934), introduction, II, GF Flammarion, 2014

Intuition therefore means first of all consciousness, but immediate consciousness, a vision which is hardly distinguishable from the object seen, knowledge which is contact and even coincidence.

Henri bergson

“Thought and the moving” (1934), introduction, II, GF Flammarion, 2014

When fathers get used to letting the children do it, when the sons no longer take their word into account, when the teachers tremble in front of their pupils and prefer to flatter them, when finally the young people despise the laws because they no longer recognize the above them the authority of nothing or anyone, so this is in all beauty and youth the beginning of tyranny

Plato

“The Republic” (c. 375 BC), trans. L. Robin

As long as the philosophers are not kings, or that those which one calls today kings and sovereigns, will not be really and seriously philosophers […] there is no […] remedy for the evils which desolate the States [ …]

Plato

“The Republic” (c. 375 BC), V, 473b-d, trans. L. Robin

The greatest evil is to do injustice

Plato

“Gorgias” (c. 380 BC), 469b, trans. L. Robin

[Thinking is] a conversation the soul pursues with itself about what is possibly the object of its examination

Plato

“Theaetetus” (c. -369 BC), trad. L. Robin, Gallimard, coll. Pleiade, 1950

The prince, having to act like an animal, will try to be both a fox and a lion: for, if he is only a lion, he will not perceive the snares; if he is only a fox, he will not defend himself against wolves

Nicholas machiavelli

“Le Prince” (1532), 18, bilingual edition translated and commented by J.-L. Fournel and J.-C. Zancarini, PUF, Paris, 2014

It seemed to me more appropriate to go straight to the actual truth of the thing than to the imagination of it

Nicholas machiavelli

“Le Prince” (1532), 15, bilingual edition translated and commented by J.-L. Fournel and J.-C. Zancarini, PUF, Paris, 2014

The fate having made that I do not know how to discuss neither the art of silk, nor the art of wool, nor of gains and losses, I must discuss the State

Nicholas machiavelli

Letter to Francesco Vettori, Ambassador of Florence in Rome (1513)

Insofar as ethics arises from the desire to say something about the ultimate meaning of life, of the absolute good, of that which has absolute value, ethics cannot be science.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

“Conference on Ethics” (1929)

It is not the how of the world that is “the mystic”, but the fact that he is

Ludwig Wittgenstein

“Tractatus Logico-philosophicus” (1921), trad. P. Hadot

There is undoubtedly an inexpressible; he shows himself; that's the mystic

Ludwig Wittgenstein

“Tractatus Logico-philosophicus” (1921), trad. P. Hadot

What is expressed in language, we cannot express it through language

Ludwig Wittgenstein

“Tractatus Logico-philosophicus” (1921), trad. P. Hadot

The limits of my language mean the limits of my universe

Ludwig Wittgenstein

“Tractatus Logico-philosophicus” (1921), trad. P. Hadot

What we can't talk about, we should keep silent

Ludwig Wittgenstein

“Tractatus Logico-philosophicus” (1921), trad. G.-G. Granger

Instead of saying “this proposition has such or such a meaning”, we will say better: this proposition represents such or such state of things.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

“Tractatus Logico-philosophicus” (1921), trad. G.-G. Granger

Anything that can in short be thought can be clearly thought out

Ludwig Wittgenstein

“Tractatus Logico-philosophicus” (1921), trad. G.-G. Granger

Once and for all, we impose an easy precept: Love, and do what you want

Augustine

“Ten Treatises on the Epistle of St. John to the Parthians”, also known as “In Epistolam Ioannis ad Parthos Tractatus Decem” (4th-5th centuries), Treaty VII, 8

The present of the past is memory; the present of the present is direct intuition; the present of the future is waiting

Augustine

“Confessions” (397-401), XI, trans. J. Trabucco, Gallimard, coll. GF, 1937

What then is time? If no one asks me, I know; but if I am asked and I want to explain it, I don't know anymore

Augustine

“Confessions” (397-401), XI, trans. J. Trabucco, Gallimard, coll. GF, 1937

What to say, finally, if not that it is, because you [God] are? And you spoke, and it was, and your one word did it all

Augustine

“Confessions” (397-401), XI, trans. J. Trabucco, Gallimard, coll. GF, 1937

Thought is nothing “inside”, it does not exist outside of the world and outside of words

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

“Phenomenology of perception” (1945), I, chapter 6

Consciousness is the being to the thing through the body

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

“Phenomenology of perception” (1945)

The freest political community is one whose laws are based on sound reason

Baruch Spinoza

“Tractatus theologico-politicus”, also known as “Tractatus theologico-politicus” (1670), chapter 16, trans. R. Caillois, M. Francès & R. Misrahi, Gallimard, coll. Pleiades, 1954

He who has a true idea knows at the same time that he has a true idea and cannot doubt the truth of his knowledge

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), II, “On the nature and origin of the soul”, proposition 43, transl. C. Appuhn, 1913

I say that a thing is free when it is by the sole necessity of its nature that it exists and acts […]

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), I, “De Dieu”, proposition 28, trans. C. Appuhn, 1913

Men believe they are free for the sole reason that they are aware of their actions and ignorant of the causes by which they are determined.

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), III, “On the origin and nature of affects”, scolie de la proposition 2, trad. C. Appuhn, 1913

We do not strive for anything, do not want, want or desire nothing, because we judge it to be good; but, on the contrary, we judge that a thing is good because we strive towards it, want it, crave it and desire it.

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), III, “On the origin and nature of affects”, scolie de la proposition 9, trad. C. Appuhn, 1913

Desire is the very essence of man

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), IV, “Of the slavery of man or the force of affects”, demonstration of proposition 18, trad. C. Appuhn, 1913

To return to things themselves is to return to this world before the knowledge of which knowledge always speaks, and in respect of which all scientific knowledge is abstract […]

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

“Phenomenology of perception”, foreword (1945)

The Human Soul cannot be completely destroyed with the Body, but there is something left of it which is eternal

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), V, “On the power of the understanding or the freedom of man”, proposition 23, transl. C. Appuhn, 1913

The Soul and the Body are one and the same thing which is conceived sometimes under the attribute of Thought, sometimes under that of Expanse

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), III, “On the origin and nature of affects”, scolie de la proposition 2, trad. C. Appuhn, 1913

All that is, is in God

Baruch Spinoza

“Ethics” (1677), I, “De Dieu”, proposition 15, trans. C. Appuhn, 1913

The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workers of all countries, unite!

Karl Marx

“Manifesto of the Communist Party” (1848), with Friedrich Engels

The history of any society so far is the history of the class struggle

Karl Marx

“Manifesto of the Communist Party” (1848), with Friedrich Engels

By acting on external nature, through this movement and by transforming it, he also transforms his own nature.

Karl Marx

“The Capital” (1867)

The abolition of religion as the ILLUSORY happiness of the people is the demand for their TRUE happiness

Karl Marx

“Contribution to the critique of the philosophy of law of Hegel” (1843, 1927), transl. M. Simon, Aubier, 1971

Man makes religion, religion does not make man

Karl Marx

“Contribution to the critique of the philosophy of law of Hegel” (1843, 1927), transl. M. Simon, Aubier, 1971

Religion […] is the opium of the people

Karl Marx

“Contribution to the critique of the philosophy of law of Hegel” (1843, 1927), transl. M. Simon

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