Symptoms and causes of kidney failure

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Avatar for Hanane34
2 years ago

Kidney failure

The human body contains two kidneys located under the ribs on both sides of the spine, and the size of one kidney is estimated to be the size of a fist, and the kidneys filter approximately half a cup of blood every minute of waste and excess water, and this in turn leads to the production of urine, and the kidneys do many Other important functions in the body, such as regulating the level of salts, minerals, and water in the body, in addition to producing some hormones responsible for regulating the production of red blood cells, bone health, and the rate of blood pressure, and a person suffers from kidney failure if the kidneys are injured and damaged, or It stops working properly, which leads to a build-up of waste products in the body, disruption of red blood cell production, high blood pressure, and fluid retention in the body

Symptoms of kidney failure

There are many different symptoms that may accompany kidney failure, and it should be noted that in some cases, the affected person may not have any clear symptoms, and the following is a statement of some of these symptoms:

  • Suffering from fatigue and extreme fatigue.

  • Notice the decrease in the amount of urine.

  • Confusion, difficulty concentrating, and memory problems.

  • Headache.

  • Feeling of pain and pressure in the chest area.

  • Shortness of breath without an apparent cause.

  • Extreme sleepiness

  • Suffering from sleep disturbances.

  • Lingering nausea.

  • Coma.

  • Loss of appetite, impaired taste, and weight loss.

  • Feeling itchy.

  • Muscle cramps, weakness and numbness.

  • Having stiffness, pain, or fluid gathering in the joints.

  • Suffering from seizures.

  • Swelling of the legs, ankles and feet due to fluid retention.

A person may suffer from symptoms different from those mentioned in the event of acute kidney failure, and among these symptoms we mention the following:

  • Have a rash.

  • Suffering from diarrhea and vomiting.

  • Nosebleeds.

  • Suffering from pain in the abdomen and back.

  • Have a fever.

Causes of kidney failure

There are a number of reasons that increase the risk of developing kidney failure, including the following:

Stopping blood flow to the kidneys: The sudden stopping of blood to the kidneys may lead to their failure, and among the health problems that may lead to a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, we mention the following:

  • Having a heart disease.

  • Having a heart attack

  • Exposure to dehydration.

  • Scarring of liver tissue or liver failure.

  • Having an allergic reaction.

  • Severe burns.

  • Infection with a severe infection, such as sepsis or what is known as sepsis.

  • Suffering from high blood pressure, and taking anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce blood flow to the kidneys in some cases as well.

  • Urine retention problems: Some health problems may lead to urine retention and the inability to get rid of it outside the body, which leads to the accumulation of toxins inside the kidneys, and an increased risk of developing kidney failure, and these problems include:

  • Infection with some types of cancer, such as cancer of the bladder, cervix, colon, and prostate.

  • Kidney stones form.

  • The nerves that regulate bladder movement have been injured.

  • Formation of a blood clot in the urinary tract.

  • Suffering from an enlarged prostate.

Other causes: There are many other causes and health problems that may lead to kidney failure, including:

  • Take some medications and alcohol.

  • Excess toxins accumulate due to exposure to heavy metals. Blood clots form in or around the kidneys.

  • Infection with some types of infection.

  • Having diabetes and not controlling it with appropriate treatments.

  • Take some types of antibiotics.

  • Vasculitis.

  • Exposure to some types of dyes used in some types of imaging tests.

  • Exposure to chemotherapy used in treating cancers and some autoimmune diseases.

  • Having lupus; It is an autoimmune disease that may lead to inflammation of a number of different body organs.

  • Suffering from glomerulonephritis; It is an inflammation of the small blood vessels in the kidneys.

  • Infection with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; It is a health problem represented by the formation of blood clots inside small blood vessels. Suffering from scleroderma disease.

  • Having multiple myeloma; It is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.

  • Infection with hemolytic uremic syndrome, and this problem is accompanied by the degeneration of red blood cells as a result of infection with a bacterial infection.

Treating kidney failure

There are a number of treatment options that are resorted to in the event of kidney failure, and it should be noted that these treatments do not help the kidneys to restore their normal functions, but rather help the person to feel better, and relieve the symptoms associated with the disease, and these treatments include:

Hemodialysis: Hemodialysis depends on the use of a machine dedicated to filtering the blood from waste products.

Peritoneal dialysis: In the peritoneal dialysis, the abdominal membrane is used to filter the blood from waste products inside the body.

Kidney transplantation: In this case, a healthy kidney from a living donor or a deceased person is transplanted.

Conservative treatment: Conservative treatment is based on preserving kidney function for the longest possible period without performing dialysis, by following a treatment plan determined by the doctor.

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2 years ago