Partition of Bengal
The province of Bengal had an area of 169,000 square miles and a population of 7.5 million. The eastern part of Bengal was almost isolated from the western part due to its geographical and inadequate transportation system. In 1837, the northern provinces were separated from Bengal and placed under a lieutenant governor, and in 1854, the Governor-General-in-Council was relieved of his administrative duties and assigned to a lieutenant governor. In 184, Assam and Sylhet were separated from Bengal and the Chief-Commissionership was formed.
In 1903, the first proposals for the partition of Bengal were considered. There was also a proposal to separate Chittagong from Bengal and to include Dhaka and Mymensingh districts in Assam. Similarly, there was a proposal to assimilate small Nagpur with Madhya Pradesh. The plan was officially unveiled in January 1904, and in February Lord Curzon attempted to verify public opinion on the division through an official visit to the eastern districts of Bengal. He exchanged views with leading personalities of different districts and gave lectures explaining the government's position on the division in Dhaka, Chittagong and Mymensingh.
The Hill Tracts will merge with the states of Tripura, Chittagong, Dhaka and Rajshahi (excluding Darjeeling) and Malda District, Assam to form the new province. As a result, Bengal will not only lose its large eastern region, it will also have to give up five Hindi-speaking states to Madhya Pradesh. On the other hand, it was proposed to give a small part of the five Oriya-speaking states of Sambalpur in the west and Madhya Pradesh to Bengal. As a result, Bengal covers an area of 1,41,580 square miles and has a population of 54 million of which 42 million are Hindus and 9 million are Muslims.
The new province was named "East Bengal and Assam" with Dhaka as its capital and Chittagong as its headquarters. It will have an area of 1,07,540 square miles and a population of 31 million of which 17 million are Muslims and 12 million are Hindus. Its administration will consist of a Legislative Council and a two-member Board of Revenue and will retain the jurisdiction of the Calcutta High Court. The government directed that the western boundary of East Bengal and Assam should be clearly defined as well as its geographical, ethnic, linguistic and social features. The government announced their final decision on July 19, 1905 and the partition of Bengal came into effect on October 16 of the same year.
Partition of Bengal canceled
This incident caused a great deal of political unrest. The Muslims of East Bengal are of the opinion that the new province will increase their opportunities in education, employment, etc. However, the people of West Bengal could not accept this division and a large number of nationalist writings were published during this time. In 1906, Rabindranath Tagore wrote a touching song, Amar Sonar Bangla, for the proponents of abolishing the Partition of Bengal, which much later, in 1972, became the national anthem of Bangladesh.
As a result of all these political protests, Bengal was reunited in 1911. Through a new linguistic division, the Hindi, Oriya and Assamese regions were separated from Bengal and brought under a separate administrative structure. At the same time the capital of British India was shifted from Calcutta to New Delhi.