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The secret of how life began on earth.

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Life is established in every inch of the earth today but when the earth was created the earth was a dead barren molten rock. So how did life begin? Very few people ask such questions regularly. Much has been written throughout human history, and almost everyone believes that one or the other God created our beloved life in one fell swoop. Even a few days ago, any explanation other than God was beyond human thought.

It is no longer true that God gave birth to life. Over the past century, some scientists have been constantly researching how the first life evolved, and research is still ongoing. Even in the laboratory, scientists have artificially created an environment similar to the one in the beginning of creation, giving birth to a whole new life out of poverty.

Whatever progress has been made is not a single effort but we have come a long way. Many scientists today are studying the origin of life and are confident that they are on the right track and that their confidence is based on long experience. This is the story of the discovery of the real source of our origin. The mystery story of the creation of life revolving around some groundbreaking discoveries of modern science is full of excitement, struggle and extraordinary creativity. Human beings have had to go to every corner of the globe to find the source of life and have endured indescribable hardships. Some scientists were engaged in monstrous research and hard work, while some scientists had to work under the feet of a cruel omnipotent government.

First episode>

The story of the origin of life on earth

Dinosaurs actually lived quite recently (Credit: Oleksiy Maksymenko / Alamy)

The soul is very old. Dinosaurs are probably the most famous extinct creatures and they survived on Earth about 250 million years ago. But to find the birth of life one has to go further into the distant past. The oldest known fossil we know is about 3.5 billion years old, which is 14 times older than the oldest dinosaurs. But the age of the fossil may be much older. For example, in August 2016, researchers found fossils of microscopic microorganisms 3.7 billion years ago.

The earth itself is not so old, it was formed 4.5 billion years ago. If we assume that life originated on this earth, then it seems reasonable and much more acceptable. To our knowledge we have not found the existence of life anywhere else. Examination of preserved old fossils reveals that something happened after the formation of the earth and within 4.5 billion years. At the same time, if we move closer to the evolutionary moment of life, we will actually get a modern idea of ​​what it was like to be in creation.

The tree of life: most of the branches are bacteria (Credit: Hug, Banfield et al, Nature Microbiology)

Biologists have known since the 19th century that all living things are made up of 'cells', which are basically a collection of tiny living particles of various kinds and sizes. The first cell was discovered in the 16th century after the invention of the modern microscope. But it took almost a century to understand the origin of life from cells. Scientists have discovered that we would need the Earth's ecological conditions and elements 3.5 billion years ago to create a cell.

A human being may not look like a coyote or a Tyrannosaurus rex, but on closer inspection with a microscope we will see that the bodies of all living things are made up of almost identical cells. Even trees, microorganisms or mushrooms etc. are made of the same material. Most of the animals in the animal kingdom are microscopic, almost all of which are made up of a single cell. Bacteria are the most famous protozoa of unicellular animals and are found all over the world.

In April 2016, scientists presented the latest modern version of the ‘genealogy of life’ at a seminar where all kinds of living creatures are shown through episodes in genetics. Bacteria are abundant in almost all branches of the animal kingdom. Moreover, looking at the genealogy of animals, it seems that the progenitor of all living things is bacteria. In other words, every living thing, even you yourself, is actually a descendant of bacteria. That is, we can now ensure a more accurate answer to the question of where the source of life is. To make a cell, we would need the earth's components and the right environment for life to develop 3.5 billion years ago. So, how difficult will it be to create life?

A complete living cell (Credit: Equinox Graphics Ltd)

Chapter One: The first research experiment

Throughout history, the need to ask the question of how life began to evolve has never been considered. Probably a factor as to why they're doing so poorly. Before the 1800s, people believed that the origin and properties of life depended on the interaction of its former physical and chemical energy. It was the innate idea of ​​man that all living beings were associated with a special gift and miracle of the Almighty that was created from any inanimate object. Although all of the life-giving chemicals are born of simple chemical reactions, they have nothing to do with life. This belief that life has been miraculously created has blossomed in harmony with religion and has developed into branches in Pallab. The Bible says that God breathed life into the first man to give him life, and that the eternal immortal soul miraculously resides in the animal body.

There was only one problem with religious theory. Miracles are misconceptions. In the early 1800's, scientists discovered objects that seemed to be unique to life. Urea was one of the elements found in urine and was detected in 1899. Until then, all that science had achieved was more in line with miracles. Only living organisms can produce these kinds of chemicals, so it is thought that urea contained the energy of life, and that is why those substances were so special.

The German chemist Friedrich Wöhler, in a lithograph by Rudolf Hoffmann from 1856

But in 1827, the German chemist Friedrich Voler discovered the method of producing urea from ammonium cyanate, a common chemical with no connection to living things. Other scientists followed in the footsteps of Ellen Friedrich Volar, and within a few days, scientists realized that life could be established in chemistry even with simple, innocuous chemicals that had nothing to do with life.

This is the end of the place of miracles in the development of life in scientific research. But man cannot so easily dispel the divine concept of the development of a soul firmly established in the depths of the mind. Many people say that there is nothing special about the creation of life from chemistry, but they think that the magic of robotic life is turning us into machines. And it certainly conflicts with the Bible.

Decades after decades this mystery of where the source of life has remained has been neglected. Even scientists have worked hard to preserve the miracle of life. For example, by the end of 1913, the British biochemist Benjamin Moore had developed a theory called "bio-energy" which was in fact nothing more than a powerful attempt to propagate miracles in a new twist. The predominance of emotion was also sufficient in Benjamin Moore's theory of ‘biological energy’. Moore’s ‘bioenergy’ theory is currently being used in many undesirable cases. As seen in many science fiction stories, it is possible to increase a person's vitality or deplete his vitality. Time Lords, a character in the English TV series ‘Doctor Who’, thinks of renewing vital energy where it is seen that energy is increasing, even if it flows slowly, it will reach the top. Although the science fiction story may seem fancy, in reality it is just an old fantasy.

Even then, since 1826, scientists have been searching for a logical reason for the first development of an ungodly life. But they can't find a way. Although the origin of life was shrouded in mystery but neglected for decades, scientists then began to think that it was a matter of discovering how life evolved. Probably almost everyone at the time was so engrossed in the question of creationism that miraculousness was so engrossed in emotion that they could not begin the next step in discovery.

Charles Darwin showed that all life has evolved from a simple common ancestor

The theory of evolution, developed by Charles Darwin and his associates in the 19th century, replaces the previous stalemate, leading to new discoveries in biology. Charles Darwin knew how life evolved. It is a question of deep thought and emotion. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution began in 1859 with the publication of the book On the Origin of Species. In Evolution, he explains how the vast majority of the diverse animal world on this vast earth evolved from the progenitor of a single cell. This is the first time someone has said that God did not create every living thing separately. The fauna was created billions of years ago from the primary organic matter on Earth. Everyone in the animal kingdom is a descendant of that unicellular progenitor.

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution caused a great deal of controversy and controversy over the theory of conflict with the Bible. Darwin and his evolution were particularly violently attacked by the fanatical Christian community. But nowhere in evolution is it mentioned how the first life evolved.

Darwin wondered if life began in a "warm little pond" (Credit: Linda Reinink-Smith / Alamy)

Darwin knew the question was serious, but he started as cautiously as he could, but it was not possible to avoid conflict with the Church. In a letter written in 181, he wanted to discuss evolution. He wanted to say in emotional language, how he knows the satisfactory answer to this important question of the origin of life. The first concept of life development originated in an omnipotent freedom of speech. But if we understand (oh what a huge one) we can see that a small warm pond has enough ammonia and phosphorus salts as well as light, heat, electricity and chemically self-produced complex compounds are moving towards more complex changes.

In other words, what happened was that for a long time ordinary organic matter was submerged in sunlight in a small wetland. Some organic matter may have evolved into a living thing. For example, there was meat and meat was becoming a more complex object. Maybe just a vague idea. But in the future it is possible to guess based on this vague idea how life first originated.

This idea manifests itself in a completely unexpected place. You might think that bold thinking like developing a godless soul has developed in a democratic country where human freedom of speech is part of the social tradition. Maybe the United States? But no, the fact is that the first conjecture about the origin of life, bypassing the miracle, was in the brutal omnipotent former Soviet Union, where liberation thought was forbidden. Then everything in Stalin's Russia was under state control. People's thoughts, even the subject of reading, which is not related to some communist politics, are also under the control of the state. What did Oparin imagine when the world was just created?

The most talked about incident was the imposition of strict restrictions on the conventional reading of Stalin's genetics. At this point, another Soviet biologist and agronomist, Trophim Denishovich Lisenko, emphasized genealogy, rejecting Joseph Mendel's genetics and Darwin's evolution. He thought that animals passed on their life experiences to the next generation. Lisenko showed how improved and more productive can be produced from improved wheat. Trophim Denishovich, more in line with Stalin's communist ideology, suppressed Lisenko's doctrine. Scientists working on genetics were forced to support and propagate Lisenko's doctrine to the public. Otherwise their place would have been in the labor camp.

Alexander Oparin lived and worked in the USSR (Credit: Sputnik / Science Photo Library)

Alexander Oparin continued his biochemical research during Stalin's repressive regime. Oparin was able to continue working unhindered because of his unquestioning allegiance to communism. Oparin endorsed Lisenko's theory and was awarded the Soviet Union's highest order, the "Order of Lenin," for his service to the country.

1924 Oparin publishes his immortal book, The Origin of Life. In his book The Origin of Life, Oparin's exploration of the evolution of life bears a striking resemblance to Darwin's concept of "a small warm pond." Oparin thought what the newly formed earth looked like. The surface of the earth was unimaginably hot, pieces of burning rock falling from space. The earth was then a chaotic pile of semi-melted rocks mixed with a huge amount of chemicals. The amount of carbon was the highest among the substances.

Oceans formed once Earth had cooled down (Credit: Richard Bizley / Science Photo Library)

If we examine a quasarvative (biochemical solution) under a microscope, we will see that the solution behaves like a living cell. Gradually the heated earth is cooling down, the water vapor condenses and the first rain falls on the earth's chest, submerged in liquid water. There was an ocean even before it rained, but it was a thick liquid based on molten carbon in extreme heat. Two things can happen in this situation.

First, different chemicals can react with each other to form numerous new complex compounds. Some of these compounds will turn into more complex compounds. Alexander Oparin thought that the tiny elements of a chemical substance were drifting towards life. Sugar and amino acids originate from Earth's water.

Second, some chemicals begin to form new microscopic microorganisms. The biochemical components of some microorganisms do not dissolve in water. Such oils float by creating a coating on the water. But when some biochemical elements are mixed with water, they take the form of spherical "quaservative" objects that can be up to .01 cm or (.004) inches in size. As microorganisms grow, they change shape and sometimes even split into two. They take part in the reaction with the chemicals in the surrounding water. In this way life-like chemical elements begin to organize among themselves. Oparin suggests that quasars are the ancestors of modern living cells.

Oparin's doctrine shows that living organisms are born entirely in a chemical reaction with no God's hand. Even the idea of ​​miraculously transmitting vital energy is traditional with no basis.

Five years later, in 1929, British biologist John Burden Sanderson Haldane published a short article in the Rationalist Annual Journal on the same doctrine. Haldane has already made significant contributions to evolution. He further integrates Darwin's doctrine in the light of evolving genetics.

On stage, Haldane is a bigger character than his life. He once thanked the doctor for his experience in the treatment of perforation of the eardrum. But later he wrote eloquently, “The eardrum usually heals naturally. If there is a hole in the screen and as a result someone becomes deaf, he will be able to leave cigarette smoke in the air without frowning, which will be a social achievement.

Like Oparin, Haldane also preached the theory of how chemical microorganisms could form on their own if the oceans had turned from a primitive state into a stable hot dense liquid. In such an environment of the earth, microorganisms or semi-living things of life are born first and at the next level a solid oily jelly-like substance is formed.

It is said that the theories that Oparin and Haldane put forward are only expressed by all the biologists of the world. The first evolution of life took place in a completely chemical reaction. There is no hand of God here. Even before Darwin's evolution, life on earth originated through a series of changes. Darwin has presented it logically, but this theory is an extreme ax to the foundation of Christianity.

Darwin's evolutionism had only one problem. There is no scientific evidence to substantiate the theory of evolution. Godless creationism is not a problem in the Soviet Union because the communist-ruled Soviet state does not officially acknowledge the existence of God. That is why the communist leaders unequivocally supported the materialist interpretation in the study of the origin of life. Haldane himself was an atheist and a staunch supporter of communism.

At that time, whether evolution would be accepted or rejected depended mainly on the individual's religious personality. Exploring the source of life, the biologist Professor at the University of Osnabr করাck, Germany. Armen Malkidjanian said that whether or not evolution is accepted depends on whether people believe in a religion or support left-wing communism. Evolution was widely accepted in the Soviet Union because there was no need for God. If we look at the West, we see that the people there are very materialistic. Their thinking is driven by left-leaning communism or liberalism.

The idea that life was created with the help of primitive biochemical dense liquids became widely known as the Oparin-Halden theory. Although the Oparin-Haldane theory was plausible, the theory had a problem. There is no research evidence to support the Oparin-Halden theory either. Twenty-five years later, no evidence has been put forward in support of the theory.

The English geneticist J. B. S. Haldane (Credit: Science Photo Library)

In 1934, the American chemist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, joined the study of the origin of life. Harold Ure also worked on the atomic bomb-making team. During World War II, the Manhattan Project enriched the much-needed uranium 235 for the atomic bomb. After the war, he started a movement to bring nuclear technology under the control of civil society. Professor Ure thought that our earth, in its primitive state, was probably lumpy in a mixture of ammonia, methane, and hydrogen. If this mixture can be exposed to electrical explosions and water, it is possible to produce amino acids. It is well known that amino acids are the first element of life.

Ure became interested in the chemistry of outer space and the floating matter in space at this time, especially to see exactly what was happening when the solar system was just created. One day he told the class that oxygen probably did not exist in the Earth's atmosphere at the time of creation. Oxygen may have been destroyed by exposure to chemical reactions. The ‘Oxygenless Earth’ proposed by Ur’s class lecture further accelerates the concept of primordial biochemical dense liquids of oparin and halden. Stanley Miller, a PhD student, attended Professor Harold Ur's class. Miller suggested to Professor Ure to examine what the solar system was like at that time. Although Ure was a little skeptical of his class lectures, Miller focused on the idea of ​​an oxygen-free world. After much discussion between them, in 1952, Professor Ure and his Stanley Lloyd Miller, a student at the University of Chicago, jointly began the famous Ure-Miller experiment in the history of science in search of life for the first time.

The Miller-Urey experiment (Credit: Francis Leroy, Biocosmos / Science Photo Library)

Testing equipment is very common. According to Miller's earlier concept, the four chemical elements of the Earth's creation were filled in four glass jars of hot water, hydrogen gas, ammonia, and methane. In the middle of the glass, Miller repeatedly gave an electric current to cause lightning. In ancient times, lightning strikes were commonplace in the world. Through this test it is possible to produce large quantities of organic molecules in a very normal environment. Miller noticed on the first day that the glass jar had a significant pinkish tinge, and by the end of the week the thick liquid solution had turned dark red. It was clear that the jar contained a mixture of organic chemicals.

Miller analyzed in the laboratory and found two amino acids in the mixture, glycine and alanine. Amino acids are identified as the primary ingredient in the creation of life and amino acids help in the creation of meat. Meat controls the physiological and biochemical processes of our body. Miller gave birth to important elements of life in the laboratory by chemical reactions of different substances. The results of Miller's research were published in the famous Science Journal in 1953. The ‘Ure-Miller Experiment’ is a memorable event in the evolution of life. Liberal Professor Ure withdrew his name from the article with the full credit of this research to Miller.

"The power of the Ure-Miller experiment lies in the fact that you can create a lot of microorganisms in a normal environment," said John Sutherland, a researcher in microbiology at Cambridge University. Life is more complicated than we think.

Subsequent further studies have shown that the origin of the Earth was a mixture of other gases. But that could be a supplementary discussion. John Sutherland said, "The Ure-Miller experiment was an example, they were able to awaken the imagination of the people and continue to practice extensively in search of the source of life." As a result of Miller's experiments, other scientists have come forward to study the origin of microorganisms from different elements in search of the source of life. The handful of unraveling the mystery of life seems imminent. So far it has become clear that life is so complex that it overwhelms our thinking. Eventually it became known that living cells are not just complex chemical compounds, life is a finely crafted machine. Suddenly, by creating itself from an unrelated object, it overcame itself and ran away before the scientists understood the purpose of the new creation.

The machinery inside cells is unbelievably intricate (Credit: Equinox Graphics Ltd)

Episode 2:

Chapter Two: Division in Science Meetings

In the early 1950's, scientists began to move away from the long-standing stereotype of God's gift of our lives. Instead, they became interested in unraveling the mystery of how potential life was created naturally. And of course thanks to Stanley Miller for the groundbreaking test. Scientists have been able to obtain future research from Miller's experiments on life.

While Miller is busy making elements of life from different objects, some scientists are researching to find out what genes are made of. Scientists have already identified many microorganisms. Sugar, fats, carbs, nucleic acids such as deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA for short have been discovered so far. The 20th century is the golden age of discovery. The great discoveries of science have taken place in this century.

Today we know for sure that DNA carries our genes. But the discovery of DNA came as a shock to scientists in the 1950's because of the complex structure of meat, they thought it was a gene. In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase refuted the scientists' mistake. They were conducting research at the Carnegie Institution in Washington on tiny viruses that carry only proteins and DNA. The virus is transmitted to bacteria for reproduction. On examination, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase found that the infectious virus had entered the bacteria but remained outside the protein. Clearly, DNA is a component of genes.

The results of Hershey and Martha Chase's experiments sparked controversy in research into how DNA works and how it is structured. The following year, Francis Creek and Jamot Watson of Cambridge University solved the DNA mystery. Rosalind Franklin helps them with long-term research. The discoveries of the 20th century add a new dimension to the search for the source of life. Incredible complexities lurking inside living cells continue to be discovered.

James Watson and Francis Crick with their model of DNA (Credit: A. Barrington-Brown / Gonville and Caius College / Science Photo Library)

Crick and Watson realized that DNA is a two-dimensional ladder-like object that is again intertwined in a spiral shape. The two ends of the spiral ladder are made up of molecules called nucleotides. My genes for you and all of us came from the ancestor of bacteria. The structure of DNA explains how cells follow our DNA. In other words, DNA reveals how parents replicate their genes and pass them on to the next generation. The main point here is that it is now possible to unravel the mystery of the twisted spiral ladder. Then we can know the lineage of the organism which has been created in the lineage of the organism. We can identify the lineage of heredity with A, T C and G. The hereditary basis is usually preserved within the spiral ladder of DNA and acts as the main regulator of replication.

In this same process, from the beginning of hereditary life, parents continue to pass on the characteristics of life to their children. Creek and Watson discovered how animals have moved to where they are today by making step-by-step replicas of bacteria.

Creek and Watson published their findings in 1953 in the journal Nature. In the years that followed, Creek and Watson's discoveries prompted biochemical scientists to explore the origins of exactly what DNA carries.

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