Safe sewerage system..

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Water, drainage and hygiene


Safe sewerage and hygiene

Quality standards, equal opportunities for all and sustainable arrangements

UNICEF / UNI157180 / Khan

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The challenge

Waste management in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh is a big challenge for the government

Bangladesh has made significant progress in stopping open defecation. However, ensuring a healthy sewerage system remains a challenge.

In Bangladesh, 55.9 percent people are getting access to sewerage system. According to a 2013 UNICEF survey, the number of people using the same toilet is much higher in Bangladesh, with urban slums being the highest.

People have a very good idea about basic hygiene in Bangladesh. However, the most important part of cleanliness is not the habit of washing hands properly.

Of those surveyed, 59.1 percent said they washed their hands with soap and water at critical times.

Apart from Dhaka, no other city has a proper sewerage system. And even in the capital, only one out of every five people is covered under this system.

Only two out of every five families properly dispose of child excrement. However, if the excreta is not properly managed, there is a risk of illness and even death of the baby. One out of every four toilets made of mud holes is unhealthy and pollutes the environment as they do not have lids.

There is a direct link between defecation and diarrhea in children. Problems such as diarrhea, intestinal inflammation and worms occur due to underdeveloped sewerage system.

Although 84% of schools in Bangladesh have toilets, only 24% of them are developed, usable and clean

There is a lack of sewerage infrastructure suitable for the use of children with disabilities.

There are differences between rich and poor in terms of access to sewerage facilities. There are also gaps in terms of geographical location and gender. According to a 2013 UNICEF survey, poor family members use 10 times more underdeveloped sanitation than the rich.

Thirty-three percent of rural households remove children's feces to safer places. On the other hand, the rate in the city is 80.2 percent.

There is a lack of knowledge and practice of seasonal cleanliness among the girls of Bangladesh. According to the National Hygiene Baseline Survey, only 36 percent of adolescents are aware of the issue during their first menstrual period. It shows that only 10 percent of girls use sanitary pads during the season.

Bangladesh is at risk of environmental catastrophe due to the combined effects of climate change, population growth and urbanization.

Frequent natural disasters such as floods and cyclones destroy the sewerage system. This overflows the toilet and spreads dirty, contaminating various sources of drinking water.

There are some problems in establishing sustainable sewerage systems in urban slums, islands, hilly and coastal areas and wetlands. One of them is low cost, climate tolerant sewerage technology.

Lack of sanitation and sanitation in Bangladesh causes a loss of ৪ 4.2 billion a year. This amount is equal to 7.3 percent of the GDP of Bangladesh. On the other hand, according to the World Bank, investing in a sewerage system will bring about 2.3 times more benefits.

UNICEF / UNI138969 / Haque Students of Krishnapur High School in Rokanpur, Nawabganj, Chapai stand in front of a toilet built with the help of UNICEF.

Only 22 percent of schools have separate toilets for girls. However, in most cases there is no opportunity to protect privacy

The solution

UNICEF is cooperating with the Government of Bangladesh to provide improved sanitation services to 72 million people by 2030.

UNICEF works with governments and partners to protect the rights of children, especially the most at-risk children.

The UN agency works to provide safe sanitation and hygiene services to children and adolescents in emergencies when they are most vulnerable and at risk.

UNICEF has taken multifaceted steps in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. UNICEF is working to increase the awareness and infrastructure needed for safe sanitation and hygiene services in urban and rural areas, as well as in health and education.

UNICEF works across sanitation management chains to prevent unsafe sewage and to build an inclusive, sustainable, and equal access to sewerage system.

In four cases, UNICEF focuses on changing people's habits. These are hand washing with soap, safe water, seasonal cleaning and safe removal of excrement.

Schools have the necessary infrastructure for safe water, sanitation and hygiene to improve student enrollment, attendance, dropout rates and actual learning.

Adherence to proper hygiene rules, such as hand washing with mother's soap at health care centers, reduces neonatal mortality by 44 percent and respiratory infections by 25 percent.

Quality sanitation and hygiene are also important for people living with AIDS and their caregivers. Safe water supply with hygienic sewerage system and sanitation protects patients from bacterial infections and improves their quality of life.

UNICEF places special emphasis on women and girls, as well as initiatives to ensure healthy management of their seasonal hygiene. Adequate sewerage infrastructure in secondary schools and provision of separate toilets for women and girls, completion rate, especially the rate of completion of education of adolescents and increasing the age of marriage have brought positive results.

A study by BRAC found that having separate toilets for girls in schools increased their attendance in class by 10 percentage points and attendance increased by 20 percentage points if they had the opportunity to use them during menstruation.

UNICEF helps to ensure sanitation and improved hygiene to prevent diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease

UNICEF's activities play a key role in the adoption, implementation and financing of a national policy on human waste management.

In addition to sponsoring the spread of climate-tolerant technology, UNICEF is also working to increase the capacity of organizations in this sector. It builds a relationship between integrated water resource management and tackling and adapting to the effects of climate change.

UNICEF has come up with an integrated model for improved sewerage system. A perfect example of a people-led complete sewerage system to eradicate the practice of open defecation. UNICEF is also working to develop a sanitation marketing system to establish a sewerage system that is climate tolerant, accessible to women and people with disabilities.

UNICEF provides information, support and resources to community members to build sustainable and empowering service systems.

UNICEF believes that involving and empowering community members and increasing their participation will help ensure safe water, sanitation and hygiene services, especially for women, children and adolescents.

UNICEF works with civil society organizations to strengthen them. It aims to involve community members in a variety of services, to make them feel self-conscious, to be vocal in social change and policy change.

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