Psychological anxiety

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2 years ago

Anxiety is one of the basic human emotions, just like joy, sadness and fear. Anxiety means feeling tension, anticipation, and a sense of general danger, and it also means lack of contentment. Anxiety is a relatively recent term in our Arabic language, and in the past, several terms were used to express it, such as fear, fear, etc. .. and in colloquial speech.

The term tension, jitter, and nervousness is used to roughly express it.

We can say, “A little anxiety is okay” because it prepares the person to face daily life and makes him better prepared to ward off dangers and master his various behaviors and actions..Daily life confronts us with many situations that require effort and the correct response, and anxiety is a positive motivation to adapt to reality and its requirements .. The problem lies When the amount of anxiety increases or lasts for a long time . . Here, anxiety is considered a disease and disorder .. because it disrupts and exhausts the person, makes his daily life painful and disturbing .. and makes his nerves tense and tense . . In addition, the feeling of anxiety and anticipation for a long period of time leads to a bad mood, fatigue, depletion of energy and lack of productivity .

It should be noted that most societies have a diverse heritage related to methods that relieve anxiety and tension .. such as recreation and entertainment, body and muscle massages, drinking some drinks and herbs, as well as multiple religious and spiritual methods.

The modern era is described as the era of anxiety..because it has rapid, sharp and sudden changes..and there are various social, economic, technical and intellectual crises and changes , and the modern man has to adapt to a set of variables and catch up with them , and he is subject to constant anxiety, alienation and frustration.


From the psychiatric aspects, most mental disorders are associated with anxiety symptoms, as well as many physical diseases.

There is a group of mental disorders called anxiety disorders , namely: public concern or generalized (Generalized Anxiety Disorder)  , bouts of acute or anxiety panic (Panic Disorder) , obsessive - compulsive disorder (obsessive Compulsive Disorder) , phobias diverse , such as phobia market and open spaces (Agoraphobia) Social phobia, specific fears of animals, heights, confined spaces, airplanes, and other fears, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder , Acute Stress Disorder , and more.

In all previous disturbances , we find that the main concern is the offer that brings them ..ohzh wide unrest spread and cause severe disruption in thinking such as Alhveanah disorders Calfsam or doubt .. It is generally classified within the turmoil of T. Minor psychological differentiation her severe mental disorders or mental .


Specific anxiety disorders:

And anxiety disorders in the specific sense are: generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder .. We will talk about them in detail later.

And also cases of adjustment disorders ( adjustment disorders ) that can take the form of symptoms of anxiety, tension and nervousness, which are caused by certain circumstances or events, such as difficulties adjusting to school, a new job, a recent marital relationship, or after the failure of an emotional relationship or a financial crisis, including Anxiety when the exam is due, etc.

There is also an aspiring character Altjunbah worried about  a kind of chronic personality disorder, and where (Avoidant Personality Disorder) is increasing concern about many life things, and is afraid of criticism and disapproval of their behavior, they are also very sensitive and looking for acceptance, and away from any discoveries renewal in behavior . She is generally shy, quiet, and suppressed. She has low self-esteem, and her lifestyle is limited because she requires constant assurance and safety.


Disorder Generalized Anxiety ( Generalized Anxiety Disorder ) :

General or generalized anxiety is a common disorder that has a prevalence of about 5% of the population. It affects males and females in similar proportions. He is diagnosed if there is  : an excessive feeling of anticipation, fear and preoccupation with the mind about various matters, with difficulty controlling this feeling, for at least six months most of the time, in addition to the presence of at least three symptoms of the following:

1- A       sense of tension, restlessness, and a boil (on my nerves all the time).

2-       Fatigue and exhaustion.

3-       Difficulty concentrating or feeling empty mind.

4-       Nervousness, irritability and jitteriness.

5-       Muscular tension (muscle pain, tension in the teeth, voice swing).

6-       Sleep difficulties (insomnia and difficulty falling asleep, interrupting sleep and not satisfying it).


Panic disorder or Alzar  ( Panic Disorder) :

It is a common disorder with a prevalence of about 3-4%, and it is more common in women and twice as common in men. And is accompanied by a third or half of the cases with multiple pathological fear or phobia market open spaces and crowds ( Agoraphobia ) , and then spread increases in women by three to one.


Panic attacks are considered an intense and frightening condition that lasts for minutes and then disappear, during which a person suffers extreme terror, acute anxiety and discomfort. The attack reaches its climax within 10 minutes and includes at least 4 of the following symptoms:

1-       Heart palpitations or increased pulse.

2-       Increased sweating.

3-       Trembling or a feeling of trembling.

4-       Difficulty breathing, obstruction and shortness of breath.

5-       Feeling of suffocation and the inability to catch the breath.

6-       Chest pain or discomfort in the chest.

7.       nausea or discomfort in the abdomen.

8-       Feeling dizzy, unbalanced, or feeling faint.

9- A       sense of a change of personality (as if I am not I) or a change in the surrounding environment.

10-    Fear of losing self-control or fear of losing one's mind.

11-    Fear of death approaching, feeling approaching the end and death.

12-    Feeling of numbness and numbness in the body and limbs.

13-    Flashes in the body, hot or cold.


In the event that the emergence of a panic attack is accompanied by a specific situation such as the patient’s presence in the market, in a crowded public place, or while riding in a car, plane, or other situations, the patient may refrain from going to such places .. In some severe cases, the patient remains Confined to the house and does not go out of it except with one of his relatives or acquaintances and after great effort (this is called amorphobia or agoraphobia).

Panic attacks can recur in one day and last for an hour or more in some cases .. The diagnosis requires the appearance of 4 attacks within a month, or one attack within a month, during which the patient remains fearful and awaiting the emergence of a second attack. Panic attacks can appear only once and disappear for many years, and then it is called a single panic attack rather than a recurrent panic attack disorder.

A panic attack appears during normal work, or after a fearful or painful situation, or after being away from the family because of work or study. The first seizure may appear after childbirth, before the menstrual cycle, during exercise, or after consuming a prohibited substance, such as hashish, cocaine, or amphetamines.


Many of the panic patients go to cardiologists, chest and emergency departments in public hospitals, and they perform many expensive examinations and the ECG or other tests do not show any signs of organic disease, and they move between various specialized clinics, including otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists and others, without a clear diagnosis and to no avail.  Few of them see a psychiatrist or be referred to a psychiatrist .. This is due to general ignorance and unjustified fears about psychiatry and psychotherapy.


Anxiety disorders in general are chronic disorders. General anxiety is more chronic than panic disorder, which passes through periods of intense and lethargic, and some cases heal automatically.

Confirming a diagnosis of panic attack disorder needs attention to some organic diseases that can manifest symptoms similar to panic attacks. This requires experience and training in addition to some medical examinations to deny or confirm their presence . The most important of these diseases are hypoglycemia, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, in addition to anemia and adrenal gland tumor .. All of this requires regular blood analysis. And some heart disorders can be mixed with a panic attack, such as ischemia, mitral valve prolapse, and heart rhythm disorders, and they require an ECG  and a clinical medical examination.

In addition to the above - mentioned organic diseases , asthma , thoracic and temporal lobe epilepsy and is the need to examine the chest and respiratory function testing and planning brain.

As for confirming the diagnosis of general anxiety, it needs to deny the existence of some previous organic diseases and also to exclude the effect of consuming caffeine in large quantities (caffeine is found in coffee, tea, cola, matte, chocolate, etc.).


Psychiatric disorders associated with anxiety:

General anxiety is associated with depression of all kinds, as well as panic disorder. Anxiety disorders are also associated with each other in the same patient. And increasing the use of addictive substances with anxiety disorders . And increase the psychosomatic disorders such as colic or stomach spasm , tension headache, and others.


the reasons :

The theory of organic psychosocial factors in its understanding of mental disorders stresses the importance of several factors together that contribute to the emergence of most mental disorders .. The importance of a particular factor varies according to the disorder or the individual situation .. and the genetic organic factors are important in the emergence of anxiety, especially in cases of panic attacks, studies show that First-degree relatives with panic have the same disorder at a rate of 25%, and the incidence of panic attacks in single-egg twins is five times higher than that of dizygotic twins. One theory suggests that there is a special sensitivity in the brain stem area to carbon dioxide in people with panic, which is a chronic allergy that leads to chronic hyperventilation and its superficiality. And it has been shown by practical experiences that if the room air is saturated with 5% of carbon dioxide, then this leads to a panic attack among those who are ready for it. They have carbon dioxide from the crowd's normal breathing.

Organic hypotheses vary in its emphasis on a specific area of ​​the brain in terms of its increased activity or the presence of a deficiency in one of the yeasts responsible for the brain neurotransmitters and its relationship to the emergence of anxiety. Perhaps the Locus Coerrolous area  is responsible for the release of the anxiety-producing adrenaline rush.

Psychological theories emphasize the importance of castration anxiety,  which a person feels in the form of danger and threat from various patriarchal symbols .. It results from educational causes and psychological conflicts that lead to a feeling of threat when a person tries to prove himself while solving a problem encountered or a difficult situation presented by him To worry about failure or a feeling of weakness and limitations.

There is separation anxiety Separation Anxiety) ) which can begin in fear of going to school in childhood and later appears bouts of panic when his man leaves or travels away from his family and important relationships.

The psychological complexities Aharmanat and pain suffered during the stage of independence and separation in psychological growth can have to leave scars and special sensitivity for each Maivkr independence and separation and lead to the emergence of symptoms of anxiety and panic later.

Behavioral theories emphasize the importance of conditional learning in understanding anxiety, for example, a person learns that an increased heart rate is associated with the occurrence of severe danger, whatever the cause of this increase, and this leads to the association of fear and anxiety with the painful circumstance and thus the expectation of danger.

Anxiety can be learned from others and from the surrounding environment, as parents teach anxiety to their children , and some people are born with sensitive moods and anxiety.

The general social and educational factors play their role in increasing the sense of risk and insecurity, through wars, disasters, social unrest, economic and living conditions, their contradictions and sharp changes ... in addition to the values ​​of intense competition, severe harsh upbringing and childish deprivations ... all of this can increase the sensitivity of the nervous and psychological system. General , as well as sensitivity to various danger signals, which increases the incidence of panic attacks and general anxiety. A modern lifestyle, with its values ​​and contradictions, can fuel and encourage anxiety in comparison to a simple lifestyle.


treatment :

There are a number of useful therapeutic methods in the treatment of anxiety in its various forms .. And medicinal treatment is useful and effective in treating panic disorder, which prevents its recurrence and controls it. It is also useful in cases of general anxiety and needs to continue for several months or more. And modern anti-serotonin drugs are effective, safe and not addictive, including: Paroxetine (Seroxat) , Sertraline (Zoloft) , Citalopram, Estalopram (Cipram, Cipralex) and Fluvoxamine ( Faverin ) and others .. As well as modern anti-serotonin drugs specifically and for noradrenaline, including venlafaxine (Efexor ). Tricyclic drugs are useful and effective, and they are among the old medicines and have some side effects and are still used as an anti-anxiety disorder such as clomipramine (Anafranil)And imipramine (Tofranil) .

The sedative drugs from the benzodiazepine group are useful and effective, and they are used for short periods, usually for weeks or when necessary, because they cause familiarity if used for long periods and on a daily basis. These include diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Rivotril),  bromazepam (Lexotanil), and alprazolam (Xanax) . These sedative drugs alleviate the symptoms of anxiety and fear and also reduce the anticipation of fear ( anticipation anxiety) that is generated by the patient after a panic attack, for example, which benefits the patient by making him act in an acceptable manner in his daily affairs without escaping and moving away from situations in which fear is expected.

And sedative drugs are also useful in cases of insomnia and temporary anxiety or resulting from certain psychological distress or difficult circumstances such as test anxiety and others, as they are used successfully within a short period.

Non-pharmacological psychotherapy relies on a number of useful behavioral techniques, such as: breathing control and deep breathing instead of fast, shallow breathing through relaxation exercises and breathing exercises.

It is useful to face a panic attack, for example, instead of escaping from it ... as well as confronting situations that provoke seizures, and it is possible to use sedative medication, suggestive, behavioral psychological methods and other reassurances that help to stay in the situation and confront it, even gradually, until the nerves get used to and calm down in the same situation .. This increases the sense of control over anxiety and modifies the patient's attitude towards his condition.

Cognitive therapy, which depends on modifying the patient’s automatic thoughts and the negative thinking pattern that he is accustomed to associated with panic attacks, for example, where a panic patient believes in a set of wrong ideas that contribute to stabilizing fear and panic, and such thoughts are discussed, identified, and then modified through dialogue and therapeutic sessions.


In general, psychological support, emphasis on independence, and personal achievement, as well as examining some personal nodes and painful memories through brief psychoanalysis and a positive relationship with the therapist.

Some general reassuring methods are also useful for relieving anxiety, such as religious and spiritual methods, remembrance and forgiveness, as well as yoga, self-control, meditation and other methods.

And general relaxation benefits through massages, various kinds of sports, hot baths, saunas, recreation, practicing some hobbies, eating some herbs  , and other self-methods and methods of self-healing, “How to control anxiety,” and “Leave anxiety and start life.” ..

The list of treatments that can be used to treat anxiety is long ... and new treatments and methods appear from time to time ... and some of them are not consistent in their effectiveness ... and with the increase in our understanding of anxiety scientifically and medically through studies and research, it is expected that the current medical treatment methods will improve and some of them will disappear.


 finally :

Psychological anxiety is a disease that needs treatment .. It is common and has many forms .. It leads to suffering and psychological and physical pain, to lack of enjoyment of daily life and to limiting and restricting activities .. It also consumes man’s internal psychological energy and makes him less effective and less productive in various fields.

Anxiety must be understood, treated, mitigated, and delusions associated with it. There must be concerted medical, educational, social, intellectual and media efforts to study, research, shed light on it, and work to find the best treatment and preventive methods in a way that serves our societies and our mental health.

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2 years ago


Brilliant your article...thanks for sharing

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2 years ago

You welcome 😉

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