Both creativity and methodological culture based on the method of scientific knowledge

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Philosophy of education is the analytical function carried out on educational concepts, policy, theory, programmes and practice. Broadly speaking, modern education lacks a unified purpose or goal to direct its curricular and pedagogical commitments.  This lack of unity exists because education has many competing allegiances to different educational methodologies, which are driven by a variety of diverse philosophical commitments. Today, education is not so much about truth or morality as it is about tolerance and contributing to the nation’s economic growth.

Philosophy is a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means. All the aspects of human life are influenced and governed by the philosophical consideration. As a field of study philosophy is one of the oldest disciplines. It is considered as a mother of all the sciences. In fact it is at the root of all knowledge. Education has also drawn its material from different philosophical bases.

Education, like philosophy is also closely related to human life. Therefore, being an important life activity education is also greatly influenced by philosophy.  In order to understand the concept of Philosophy of education it is necessary to first understand the meaning of the two terms; Philosophy and Education.

Examination, where it is possible to make a good guess

or if lucky, to train yourself on the solution of standard

tasks and to pass an exam anyway. The modern system

of school education in Russia is mainly focused on

students getting a successful result rather than on the

quality of education. Then, a similar approach is

implemented at higher educational institutions, where

students are only concerned with getting a degree but not

with acquiring knowledge.

Modern philosophy of Russian education is a

mechanical mixture of diverse views, theories and

principles. It is the mechanistic approach. Such

combinations are called eclecticism. This is the

philosophy of a modern identity and this approach is

often demonstrated by modern Russian management that

controls educational and development processes. There

are plenty of technologies but the methodology of

educational and development process is eclectic. What

results of students’ development are possible to argue

about using such approach or rather such method?

Development of an individual shall always have some

meaning, an inspiring idea, an idea proved by theory,

confirmed by practice, related to a dream, and supported

by a method. And moreover, by a proven method! It

should be the method of scientific knowledge. Where

and when did education lose its method, its dialectic

method and methodological culture?

Main milestones of the Russian higher school

reforms. It is fair to say that the first attempts of

reforming the system of the Soviet education date back

to the 70s-80s of the last century. Suffice it to recall

scientific and philosophical school of P.V. Kopnin that

was developed in Tomsk, Kiev, and Moscow. Works of

Kopnin [4, 5] and his students introduced new concepts

in addressing the issues of methodology of scientific

knowledge, discussed new approaches to education, as

well as its “problematical character and method”. At that

time the reform of higher education was defined as a

problem. Similar attempts were also made in Western

countries. We shall remember it in order to emphasize

the global nature of higher education reforms [6]. We

even wrote in one of our books that “the reforms of

higher education became some kind of a sign of the end

of the 20th - beginning of the 21st century” [7].

Chronologically, the reforms were initiated by the

Decree No. 1 of the President B.N. Yeltsin On High

Priority Measures for the Development of Education in

the Russian Soviet Federated Socialistic Republic

(RSFSR) [8] with reference to exceptional importance of

education focused on the development of intellectual,

cultural and economic potential of Russia and

emphasizing the priority of its education. These were the

reasons and grounds of this document.

1993 is marked as another milestone. New

educational standards were issued. The standards

became obligatory in 1997. Higher educational

institutions began to adjust in order to meet the

requirements of these standards. What are the conceptual

elements of the reform? It is a two-tier system. A

specialist degree program was replaced by a bachelor’s

and a master’s degree. A new type of examination for

the candidate’s degree was introducedment.

When we try to recover the place and role of dialectic

in the philosophy of science and education we do not

intend to return to the Soviet model. It is about return to

Hegel, Marx, to the original essence of laws and

categories. The classical dialectic formulated three basic

laws: unity and struggle of opposites, transition of

quantitative changes to qualitative ones and vice versa,

as well as negation of the negation. So, when did the

Russian education lose its dialectic nature? Was it in the

beginning of the 90s during sharp transition from

planned economy to the market economy and while

changing a social system? No, it was much earlier.

As far back in the Soviet period the great ideas of

Hegel and Marx were given a primitive attribute. In

reality, their ideas failed to become a method of

creativity and were a mere camouflage to justify the

policy and ideology of Russian authorities. Higher

education in humanities was formally accepted in a spirit

of their method, but in fact the method was discredited.

Education in humanities was focused on ontological

justification of the USSR history as the only right and

single theory and practice of a social progress. Neither

strategy nor tactics were considered as consequences of

the theory of Hegel and Marx but, on the contrary, their

method in such interpretation became a derivative of

program ideals of the Soviet state.

Dialectic and metaphysics in knowledge and

education. The methodological approach has two

versions – a metaphysical and dialectical one. A

researcher or an organizer of the educational process has

to decide which of these two s/he takes as a basis.

Nevertheless, the result in both cases will not be

identical. Therefore, the choice between dialectic and

metaphysics is a real alternative. It is the dualism at

least. How to pick a better option? A quarter of a century

we imitated the Western model. We believed that the

market will solve everything. To be more exact, we did

not believe but were convinced to think this way. It was

done by pro-Western Russians, who these days are

known as pro-Westerners. Later, the history started to

call them this way.

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