Political Realism Theory

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A leader wants his power to last, so it is very important to do an image. A portrait that has become commonplace today. No matter the slightest achievement, it becomes a necessary material to be shown in front of the people, in the hope that a ruler will get appreciation and look good in the eyes of his people.

That is the view of Niccolo Machiavelli describing the political reality that occurred during his time. The portrait of the way the country's leader wants to maintain his power is recorded in him. Not talking about political theories that are in the realm of abstract idealism. But looking at politics from the point of view of realism, separating the real from the ideal is the understanding understood by Machiavelli.

As a European Enlightenment political thinker known for his controversial theory. Even his thinking is often considered a satanic thought because he considers morality as unimportant in political matters. Unless it helps to gain and maintain power.

The political situation that occurred in the Italian city of Florence in the 15th century became an influence on his thinking. Where the De Medici dynasty which ruled with an iron fist ruled at that time. So that under his rule Italy had a very urban and secular civilization that made Italy a strong country because of its tough leadership style. None of the citizens of Italy dared to challenge him during this dynasty.

With the hegemony of power practiced by De Medici, Machiavelli realized that in power politics, normative and even religious normative approaches cannot be placed as guidelines. So that the controversial Machiavelli theory of power and state became the forerunner to the emergence of Machiavelli's Political Theory. It also emphatically rejects the previous theory put forward by Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine, especially the union between religious affairs and state affairs.

But not only that, there are other factors that influence Machiavelli. Namely Vitelli. A name of a mercenary leader. Because the problem that occurred at that time was the widespread use of mercenaries in fighting for national interests. When Florence and the mercenaries wanted to take Pisa, the mercenaries stopped the attack, because Pisa turned out to pay more to the soldiers.

In a book entitled The Prince Machiavelli expresses his thoughts. The book describes the ways in which a person can obtain and maintain state power. Machiavelli sees politics as a battlefield condition that must be conquered.

To understand Machiavelli's thinking, the state should not be thought of from an ethical perspective, but from a medical perspective. At that time, Italy was suffering and sorrow, while Florentine was in grave danger. So the state must be made strong, not with an ethical but medical approach. The defiant people must be amputated before it infects the entire country.

Power in Machiavelli's point of view is not solely for personal gain, but for the honor and welfare of the state. In gaining or maintaining power, a ruler must pay attention to the situation and conditions in his country. Don't make the mistake of taking political action.


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