Origin of biryani...

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Biryani is an Indo-Aryan word derived from the Persian language, which was used as an official language in different parts of medieval India by various Islamic dynasties.[6][7] One theory states that it originated from birinj (Persian: برنج‎), the Persian word for rice.[8][9] The word birinj, a middle Persian word, was ultimately derived from vrihi (Sanskrit: व्रीहि) one of the Sanskrit words for rice.[10] Another theory states that it is derived from biryan or beriyan (Persian: بریان‎), which means "to fry" or "to roast"

According to historian Lizzie Collingham, the modern biryani developed in the royal kitchens of the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) and is a mix of the native spicy rice dishes of India and the Persian pilaf.[15] Indian restaurateur Kris Dhillon believes that the dish originated in Persia, and was brought to India by the Mughals.[16] Another theory claims that the dish was prepared in India before the first Mughal emperor Babur conquered India.[17] The 16th-century Mughal text Ain-i-Akbari makes no distinction between biryanis and pilaf (or pulao): it states that the word "biryani" is of older usage in India.[18] A similar theory, that biryani came to India with Timur's invasion, appears to be incorrect, because there is no record of biryani having existed in his native land during that period.[17]

According to Pratibha Karan, who wrote the book Biryani, the biryani is of South Indian origin, derived from pilaf varieties brought to the Indian subcontinent by Arab traders. She speculates that the pulao was an army dish in medieval India. Armies would prepare a one-pot dish of rice with whichever meat was available. Over time, the dish became biryani due to different methods of cooking, with the distinction between "pulao" and "biryani" being arbitrary.[8][17] According to Vishwanath Shenoy, the owner of a biryani restaurant chain in India, one branch of biryani comes from the Mughals, while another was brought by the Arab traders to Malabar in South India.[19

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