Kazi Nazrul Islam was born on 24 May 1899 in the village of Churulia in the Asansol subdivision of the Burdwan district of West Bengal, India. Churulia village is located in Jamuria block of Asansol subdivision. He is the sixth child of Zaheda Khatun, the second wife of Kazi Fakir Ahmed, the son of his grandfather Kazi Amin Ullah. His father, Fakir Ahmad, was the imam of the local mosque and the caretaker of the shrine. Nazrul's three brothers are the youngest Kazi Ali Hossain and the eldest of the two sisters is Kazi Sahebjan and the youngest Umme Kulsum. Kazi Nazrul Islam's nickname was 'Dukhu Mia'. Nazrul worked as a muezzin in the local mosque in the village. Study of Quran, Islam, Philosophy and Islamic Theology at Maktab (Mosque-run Muslim religious school). His father died in 1908, when he was only nine years old. After the death of his father, his education was hampered by family hardships and he had to go to work to earn a living when he was only ten years old. At this time Nazrul passed the lower secondary examination from Maktab and started teaching in that Maktab. At the same time, Haji started working as a servant of Paloyan's grave and as a muezzin of the mosque. Through these works, he got an opportunity to get acquainted with the basic rituals of Islam at an early age, which later had a profound effect on his literary work. He is said to have started the practice of Islamic consciousness in Bengali literature. Nazrul did not work in maktabs, mosques and shrines for long. Attracted to folk art at an early age, he joined a Leto (a traveling theater troupe of mixed poetry, song and dance in the Radha region of Bengal). His uncle Kazi Bazle Karim was a prominent teacher of the Leto group in the Churulia region and was fluent in Arabic, Persian and Urdu. Besides, Bajle Karim used to compose songs in mixed languages. It is believed that Nazrul Leto joined the team under the influence of Bajle Karim. Besides, Nazrul used to regularly take part in the Leto and Kavigan gatherings of the popular Leto poet Sheikh Chakor (Goda poet) and Kabiya Basudeb. Literary practice started in Leto group. With this group he would go to different places, learn acting with them and write songs and poems for their plays. In the light of his own work and experience, he started studying Bengali and Sanskrit literature. At the same time he continued to study Hindu scriptures i.e. Puranas. At that young age he composed several folk songs for his theater troupe. These include the company of the farmer, the vulture, the company of King Yudhisthira, the donor Karna, King Akbar, the poet Kalidas, Vidyabhutum, the song of the prince, the old statue. On the one hand, the life of mosques, shrines and maktabs, on the other hand, the diverse experience of the Leto group has provided many elements of Nazrul's literary life.
Kazi Nazrul Islam was given the status of National Poet of the State of Bangladesh. His composition 'Chal Chal Chal, Urdhagagane Baje Madal' is accepted as the war song of Bangladesh. Nazrul's birth and death anniversaries are specially celebrated every year. Nazrul's Memorial in Trishal (Mymensingh District, Bangladesh) in 2005 National Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam University Government University. Nazrul Academy, Bulbul Fine Arts Academy and children's organization Bangladesh Nazrul Sena were established in the memory of the poet in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Besides, Nazrul Institute, a research institute has been officially established. A main road in Dhaka city has been named Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue. In recognition of his special contribution to Bengali literature and culture, the University of Dhaka conferred on him the honorary degree of D.Litt on 9 December 1974. He was conferred the title at a university convocation. In January 1976, the government of Bangladesh granted the poet citizenship of Bangladesh. He was awarded the Ekushey Padak on 21 February of the same year. Ekushey Padak is considered as the most honorable medal of Bangladesh.