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In the competitive world context of the 21st century, the independence of any country is not limited to its geographical sovereignty. The socio-political situation of the country is involved with this. In exchange for a sea of blood, Bangladesh has taken its place on the map of the independent world. But the root cause of corruption has taken root in Bangladesh. "Corruption - If it is not possible to eradicate, Bangladesh itself will be eradicated one day; East of corruption - all development possibilities will be swept away by the storm; Despite independence, the nation will fade into the stigma of subjugation and be thrown into the list of failed states. So what is the root cause of corruption at all levels of corruption at any cost
The word corruption comes from the Latin Corruptus, which means destruction or harm. According to the hand brochure published by the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC), corruption is the misuse of power for personal gain or personal gain. Another definition of the ACC says, 'Actions that are not generally acceptable to the conscience are called corruption. Is. Corruption is defined in the Social Work Dictionary. Thus, in political and public administration, corruption is usually the acquisition of personal gain through bribery, coercion, intimidation, influence, and abuse of power through the provision of benefits to individuals. According to the UN's Manual on Anti-Corruption Policy, abuse of power for personal gain is corruption. The abuse of this power applies to both public and private sectors.
Corruption and Bangladesh: On December 1, 2011, the 16th Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) was published. It includes 183 countries. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index Report 2011, Bangladesh ranks 13th. According to a report by the World Bank on ‘Country Procurement Assessment’, files do not move in government offices in Bangladesh without bribes. The situation has become such that corruption seems to be the main driving force of the administration of Bangladesh. Corruption is visible at every level of government administration. Corruption is everywhere, from the lowest to the highest.
The following are some of the major areas of corruption in Bangladesh:
Corruption in law enforcement agencies: The main tool of law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh is the police. But public perceptions about the police are extremely negative. According to Transparency International Bangladesh 2013 report, 92% of the people have to pay an average of Tk 2430 to open an FIR in the police station. 91% of the people make GD at the police station. 939 rupees is to be paid as bribe. 60% of the people have to pay an average bribe of Tk 81 to get a clearance certificate from the police station.
Corruption in the education sector: The education sector is one of the largest sectors of the Bangladesh government. The role of education is most important in human resource development and national development. But due to lack of transparency and accountability, corruption is rampant in this sector. According to Transparency International Bangladesh 2013 report, 40% of students have to pay an average of Tk 209 as admission fee even though they have the opportunity to study without pay in primary education. 21.6% students have to study privately with the teacher of the same institution. 32.4% students have to pay an average of Rs 40 to get a government scholarship at the primary level. Similarly, at the higher secondary level, 22% of students have to pay an average of Rs 45 to get a government scholarship.
Corruption in the health sector: The picture of the health system in Bangladesh is very fragile. Corruption is rampant in the health sector due to lack of accountability and disruption of health services. According to the Transparency International Bangladesh 2013 report, 27.4% of government doctors pay an average of Tk 80 for visits from outpatient departments and 56% of patients pay an average of Tk 410 for a pathological report in a government hospital and an average of Tk 518 for an X-ray report. In addition, a row of doctors see patients in private or private clinics without seeing the patient in the hospital.
Corruption in the banking sector: According to Transparency International Bangladesh 2013 report, a customer has to wait for 108 days to get a loan from a government bank. Which is available in private banks in 30 days. 58% of people have to pay an average bribe of Rs 1,985 to get a loan.
Corruption in tax payment and pension collection: According to a report by Transparency International Bangladesh 2013, 410% of people pay an average bribe of Tk 7.48 while paying income tax. 14% of the people pay Rs. 3,17 for transport tax and 9% pay Rs. 1,536 for holding tax. 61% of the people have to pay an average of Rs 8,000 as bribe while collecting their pension.
The various reasons for controlling corruption are as follows:
Political Impact: In the current social context of Bangladesh, the political influence in the administration is noticeable. Administrative officials are dependent on political parties for their own interests. Bureaucratic corruption naturally increases because the political process is corrupt and has an undue influence on the administration.
Lack of transparency and accountability: Lack of transparency and accountability in the administration is one of the reasons for corruption at various levels in the society and the state. The administration of Bangladesh is a legacy of the administrative structure of the colonial period, where the process of accountability is absent.
Negligence of duty: Negligence of persons holding certain responsibilities is also one of the causes of corruption. Not working on time, sticking to the file, creating complications and getting involved in corruption.
In addition to this, various aspects are closely involved. This is discussed below:
Growing separatist tendencies: In the present capitalist society, the tendency of separatism is increasing among the people and as a result the greed of the people is increasing day by day. When it comes to satisfying small interests, people are wrong about big interests because corruption is rampant.
Income-Expenditure Inequality: Rising commodity prices have made it difficult for the general public, especially government officials and employees, to meet their living expenses on their normal income. Many have identified it as one of the causes of corruption. It is said that government officials are mainly responsible for corruption.
The following points are highlighted:
A strong political commitment is needed to achieve development and progress of the country through political will and eradication of corruption. In a democratic system of government, the majority political party elected by the people is responsible for forming the government and running the state. So if they are honest and sincere from the point of view of political values, then it is possible to eradicate corruption. In order to show goodwill against corruption, political parties should be given
(a) membership of corrupt people,
(b) continued democratic practices,
(c) stop political interference in administration,
d) increase accountability within the organization,
(e) nominate honest and worthy candidates and
(F) Ensure that funds are not collected from unscrupulous sources.
There are multiple issues involved with these direct and indirect issues.
Corruption will be prevented only if there is evidence of proper implementation of these. Corruption has emerged as a complex social problem in Bangladesh. There are many reasons for this widespread corruption. Sometimes due to poverty, sometimes due to lavishness, sometimes due to corruption but there is no possibility of corruption. Corruption occurs due to such a situation. Lack of good governance encourages corruption. Political and administrative corruption increases when governance is not improved. Moreover, the absence of rule of law and the dishonesty and weakness of the political leadership are one of the reasons for the rise in corruption.
Legal and administrative reasons: The main reasons for corruption in the country are legal and administrative weaknesses. There are many aspects involved with this. For example, inefficiency of national institutions: In institutions that include democracy and national integrity system, such as parliament, judiciary, public administration, media, civil society, etc., the main role is to work independently and impartially and to ensure transparency, impartiality and accountability in other institutions. To create If the independence and neutrality of these institutions are not ensured, the level of corruption in the country increases.
Effective Parliament: Effective Parliament is necessary for the establishment of good governance. A dynamic parliament is also needed to strengthen democracy in a parliamentary system. It is important to draw attention to the question and answer session in Parliament, to discuss important issues, to give speeches on various rules, and to have a strong committee system. The accountability of the administration can be ensured by adopting these methods. In particular, the Standing Committee on Public Accounts in Parliament can play an important role in curbing corruption and establishing good governance.
Establishing an independent judiciary and the rule of law:- If the rule of law is established in the country, corruption will be reduced. This requires an independent judiciary. The judiciary must be free from the influence of the administration and parliament. Appropriate legal action must be taken against the corrupt person. Everyone is equal in the eyes of the law and no one is above the law - it must be established in society. Then it will be seen that people are avoiding corruption as a result of proper application of law.
Active Anti-Corruption Commission: Non-partisan, independent and active anti-corruption commission is needed to prevent corruption. The Anti-Corruption Commission should have the power to investigate complaints against any person or organization and take necessary action. One of the tasks of the commission is to play an effective role in preventing corruption by maintaining an independent and neutral role. The government will provide unconditional financial, technical and administrative support to the commission. Establishment of anti-corruption hotlines from the capital to various levels, direct communication between Bangladesh Bank, National Board of Revenue and the Commission, full investigation of all government agencies with special teams, adequate training to develop the skills of the officers involved in the investigation and staff. Provision should be made for accountability and reward for good deeds.
Equitable pay structure and adequate remuneration: Adequate remuneration should be fixed for government officials and employees in a balanced pay structure and where applicable in line with the market price. With the increase in the price of goods, the salary and other benefits have to be adjusted.
Creating an anti-corruption social movement: Corruption is a social disorder. Hence the need for state initiatives to curb corruption as well as the spontaneous resistance of the common people. Civil society, especially the youth, has to play an active role in preventing corruption. The language movement of 1948 to 1952, the education movement of 1962, the mass uprising of 1969 with 6 points, 11 points - the youth society of this country has shown the deprived, oppressed nation at all levels in the name of liberation. Our country, which was acquired at the cost of millions of lives in the great liberation war of 1971, has set a unique example in the history of the world. The youth of this country have repeatedly proved that we have not lost, we have succeeded, we can. Only the genuine love and responsibility of the youth towards the country can take this anti-corruption social movement forward.
Effective role of the media: The role of the independent media is very important in ensuring good governance by establishing anti-corruption, transparency and accountability. The media can play an effective role in preventing corruption by investigating and disclosing information about corruption and irregularities in the society.
International Initiatives: Recognizing the international impact of corruption, the UN General Assembly adopted the United Nations Declaration on Bribery and Corruption in International Trade in 1997. Subsequently, the UN General Assembly adopted the Anti-Corruption Charter on 31 October 2003, with the aim of curbing the spread of corruption worldwide, which was opened for signature on 9 December 2003 in Merida, Mexico. For this reason, December 9 has been declared as the International Anti-Corruption Day. About 150 countries have signed the charter. As a result of the signature of this Charter by the Government, Bangladesh has been included as a partner country of this important UN Charter since 26 February 2007.
Corruption is one of the major obstacles to national development in any country.
Unequal Economic Competition: In Bangladesh, social status is measured by the standard of money. Sang Path Ajit. Thus corruption is increasing. Trying to gain status, which increases social corruption. The competition for Sujan-Pashan has taken on a large scale. This is also a big cause of corruption. Financial inadequacy and low standard of living Financial inadequacy and low standard of living is one of the major causes of social corruption in Bangladesh. Professionals and working people resort to various forms of corruption as they cannot meet the family needs by earning money in a normal way.
Impact of Corruption: If we divide the areas of development in national life into economic, social, cultural, political, infrastructural and psychological, then the effects of corruption in these areas can be presented as follows:
Impact of Social Sector: Corruption By Corruption leads to depreciation of values and various social problems including crime, prostitution, begging. As a result, it is beneficial for social institutions. The effectiveness gets lapped.
Influence in the political field: Corruption turns the state, individual or party into an institution of salvation, creating mistrust and insecurity among the people. This increased factional, sectarian and inter-party conflicts and the effects of post-election electoral terrorism spread throughout society.
Impact on national life: National progress is severely hampered by corruption. The economic, political and institutional development of a country is harmed. Corruption makes domestic and foreign investment laugh out loud; Achieving national growth is hampered; Poverty insurance is not successful; The availability of resources decreases; Human resource development is hampered and people's confidence in democracy is destroyed. After all, corruption causes severe negative reactions in three main areas of the state (economic, political and social). Impact on the economy: Corruption increases the cost of living, impedes development and wastes state resources. Production in the agricultural and industrial sectors is disrupted. According to a report, in the last 35 years, there has been corruption of 50-60 thousand crore rupees in Bangladesh. Due to corruption in the power and other services sector, about 8-10 thousand crore rupees are being deprived of national income every year. Corruption reduces the income of low-income people in society, while rising commodity prices reduce their purchasing power. As a result, people are deprived of education, health, justice and other basic rights and suffer from economic inequality. According to a survey, about 64% of the people in Bangladesh pay bribes to get 25 services in 9 sectors. According to the National Board of Revenue, the amount of illegal income in Bangladesh is 30-40 percent of the national income. Human development is hampered by the rampant spread of corruption and the general public is deprived of basic rights such as education, health, security and justice. The common people of the country, especially women, children and minorities who are deprived of the benefits of the society - are the ones who suffer the most in corruption. As a result, the process of social justice is disrupted and moral values are eroded due to limited opportunities.
Ways to prevent corruption: Preventing corruption is an important constitutional responsibility of the state. However, the way in which corruption has taken root in all walks of life today has not happened in a short time and for a single reason. Therefore, long-term multifaceted programs need to be adopted without taking short-term and unilateral solutions to curb corruption. In order to prevent corruption in Bangladesh, it is proposed to take the following but direct and indirect or long-term measures:
Direct action: Creation of the post of anti-corruption ombudsman and establishment of effective office of ombudsman, establishment of independent judiciary, establishment of independent anti-corruption commission rule of law and establishment of good governance system. , Indirect or long-term measures: In order to eradicate corruption, effective measures should be taken to socially boycott the corrupt in order to create moral values and social consciousness of the people.
Therefore, in order to protect the country and the nation from corruption, it is necessary to have a political will, an atmosphere of honesty, transparency and accountability. Every post-independence government of Bangladesh has issued a stern warning against corruption. But in reality, Bangladesh has gained the notoriety of being the most corrupt country in the world today. Yet we think that the black cloud of corruption will one day be removed from the skies of Bangladesh. Because we are optimistic. And in the words of Anisul Haque, "The optimist is the person who comes in the middle of the fall from the Eiffel Tower and thinks that he is not injured yet. "If every person carries out his or her responsibilities to the authorities in a transparent and honest manner and if every person is held accountable to the people and his or her authorities, then the country can be saved from corruption. May be accelerated.
The prevailing capitalism of our country indulges in various kinds of corrupt practices. Qualitative change in the political system must be brought about in Bangladesh through meritocracy. Moreover, creating mass awareness against the pulse and.