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The unspoiled green palms, the murmurs, the splashing freshwater springs, the spiraling rivers, the paths of the friends traversing the high and low hills, the melodious surroundings of the wings, the intoxicating scent of wild flowers, somewhere wildThe laughter of the golden crop and the flatness of the mountain slopes sometimes inhabit small ethnic groupsThis is the mountain. Green hills. Diverse hills. This aesthetic environment of the mountains is different than any other environment in the country. The proximity of nature to the mountains makes people inhabitants of one world, people of another kind.
There are about 360 million small ethnic groups in 70 countries around the world. Bangladesh has a small ethnic population of 45 nationalities of about 27 languages, numbering about 1 million or 1 percent of the total population. Most of them are from the Chakma community. Apart from Chakma, Marma, Thanchangya, Manipuri, Kuki, Rakhine, Garo, Santal, Hajong, Bam, Tripura are notable. Most of them live in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. They are also seen in Sylhet and some districts of North Bengal. People from small ethnic groups have been living in these areas for generations. Their life, heritage, culture and culture have become one with the mountain environment. In fact, the people of these small ethnic groups, who grew up in the lap of nature, are in fact the children of nature.
The clothing, daily life, eating habits, and household conditions of different ethnic groups are different from those of the plains. The houses built a little above the ground on the hill are almost all made of bamboo or wood. The houses may have been built to protect them from wild animals. In front of almost every house there is a scaffolding-like place where they sit and hang out for daily activities or leisure. Looking into the distance, nature's wonderful outfit.
People in small ethnic groups depend heavily on nature for food. Although jum farming is their main occupation, they have been eating various herbs, vegetables and fruits grown in the hills for generations. Everyone, men and women, is involved in jum cultivation in one way or another. They produce a variety of crops on the hillside zoom method and sell the produced crops in the local market. Men and women are all hard workers. Early in the morning he tied a basket on his back and went out for work. They use their own baskets to carry various items. Women wrap their children's clothes around their backs at work. Among the various problems, water crisis is one of the problems of small ethnic groups. They have to rely on rivers or mountain springs for water. And this is why settlements are formed in the vicinity of places where there are springs or rivers. The fountains are known to the locals as rhyme. They depend on spring water for their daily activities including washing clothes, bathing, eating and cooking.
Bangladesh has the largest number of Chakmas among the small ethnic groups. They are far ahead of others in terms of education, social and financial position. Nowadays the rate of education among others is also increasing.
Each nationality has its own characteristics. They have their own customs, dress, language, culture and religion. Although they have their own language, some communities do not have a written alphabet. However, most people have their own alphabet, rhymes, stories, poems, dances and songs. People from most small ethnic groups weave their own clothes. In weaving cloth, they prefer their own yarn and color and taste. Their colorful outfits are really interesting. The Manipuri community of Sylhet region is well known across the country for their traditional colorful costumes and different cultural features. Women from small ethnic groups love to wear jewelry. Apart from gold, silver, bronze and iron, there is a tradition of wearing fancy designs of different metals in combination with traditional jewelery.
For everyday use, they use various items made of bamboo, cane and wood, which they make themselves. This different culture and language of the small ethnic population has made the indigenous culture rich and diverse. According to religion and culture, they celebrate various festivals whose behavior is remarkable. Some groups of people worship nature. Nature is very important to them as they depend on nature in every aspect of daily life.
The relationship of small ethnic groups with nature is deep. Preserving forests to meet their needs and maintain the natural balance is their traditional feature. They are as simple as nature. But now they also realize that nature is not the same as before.
For centuries, small ethnic groups have been protecting biodiversity with knowledge from nature, which is under threat today due to population growth and other environmental factors. Proper use of natural resources to preserve mountain life, heritage and biodiversity can only combine nature and life to save biodiversity from extinction.