The concept of human rights; History of the establishment of human rights; Human rights and the current world; Human rights and development; The benefits of establishing human rights; Obstruction; Human Rights and Bangladesh; The role of governments and organizations in establishing human rights; Establishing human rights in BangladeshStruggle; Conclusion.)The concept of human rights is widely known in the world today, but it is not recent or new. The issue of human rights is found in the various religious beliefs cherished over the centuries. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH), Jesus Christ, Gautama Buddha and other great human beings were proponents of the concept of human rights. Even today, the issue of human rights is shining brightly among people like Martin Luther King, Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa, Nelson Mandela.
The concept of human rights: After the First World War of 1914, the issue of human rights made people think a lot. The whole world needs a policy to overcome the anarchy, famine, despair, starvation, moral decay caused by the war, by which the people of the world can be saved from hunger and poverty. In addition, some people in the world at that time thought of protecting the people from the inhuman oppression and injustice of the Nazi forces formed by Hitler. It is in this context that human rights are established. Basically, human rights means freedom from hunger, right to vote, right to express opinion, access to education, freedom of thought, guarantee of treatment, guarantee of enjoyment of all rights, guarantee of equal development of people of all religions and castes.
History of the establishment of human rights: The universal form of human rights was established after the terrible First World War of 1914. The 'League of Nations' was established. Its purpose was to bring about the welfare of the people through various autonomous or trust territories. The League of Nations, a member organization of the ILO, began the formal journey of human rights by determining the working hours and wages of workers. Then in 1944, at the Dumberton Oaks building in Washington, DC, the issue of human rights came up for discussion in the establishment of the United Nations. The United Nations Charter was signed on June 26, 1945.According to the Charter, Fundamental Human Rights are Dignity and worth of human Beings or Dignity and Worth of Human Beings. Later, on December 10, 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted. .On this day, the UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) was announced in France by Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of former US President Roosevelt. This is how human rights are established.
Human Rights and the Current World: When the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, UNO had 57 members. Currently 193 countries are UNOÕi members. And all of these countries are committed to complying with UNOÕi principles. The Declaration of Human Rights also pledges to ensure the fundamental, social, political, economic and cultural rights of the people by declaring the establishment of equal rights for all religions and castes and all nations.
Adopted along the path of UDHRÑ-
i) International convention on Civil and Political Rights.
ii) International convention of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
iii) Convention on the Rights of the Child.
iv) International convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Etc.
Organizations such as UNICEF, UNHCR, ILO, UNESCO, CEADAW, etc. have assisted in the establishment of human rights. In fact, the two concepts of development and human rights are inextricably linked. Basically, the United Nations has adopted development as a human right. But whether development is being achieved will require-
i) Whether there is a guarantee of basic right to life (Condition of life) such as food, health, education, housing, leisure and recreation.
ii) Condition of Work i.e. whether there is a right to job, income etc.
iii) Equality of Access of resources i.e. whether the land, capital etc. are enjoying the rights of natural resources.
iv) Whether Participation or participation in the democratic process at local, national or international level is guaranteed.
As such, the UNDP has published the Human Development Index and has identified issues such as longevity, age, education, income, etc. as measures of development.
Benefits of Human Rights: Since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, numerous initiatives and strategies have been adopted which are playing an important role in the establishment of human rights. Democracy has developed worldwide since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The sense of individuality of the people has been established. At present abominable and barbaric slavery has come to an end. Equal rights for men and women have been established to a large extent. Considering the establishment of the right to education and the importance of education, from 1995 to 2004 was adopted as the Decade of Human Rights Education.
Obstacles: Human rights have done a lot of development work around the world. Yet it has some obstacles. Basically, human rights are not yet fully established in the world. A large section of the world's population is deprived of human rights. So far, the international community has failed to take practical steps to quench the hunger of the Third World. Yet two-thirds of the world's people live below the poverty line. Democracy has not been established in many countries. The free market economy did not bring full benefits.
Human Rights and Bangladesh: Democracy, secularism and people's rights have been enshrined in the constitution since Bangladesh was born in 1971. It became a member of the United Nations very soon, in 1974. December 10 is Human Rights Day celebrated here with due dignity. However, human rights have not been fully protected in this country. According to the Bangladesh Human Rights Coordinating Council, more than 10,000 people have been victims of human rights violations in the first nine months of 1996. Torture and death in police and prisons, road and naval accidents, dowry system, murder-robbery, rape, suicide, terrorism are now very common occurrences in Bangladesh. All these are the reasons for human rights violations. Terrorism and extortion have endangered the lives of our common people. Political party quarrels, killings and disappearances have been added in a new way. In this situation, human rights have been violated in this country. If a hunger-free, poverty-free, chaos-free society cannot be built, human rights will remain here only in words, not in deeds.
Role of Governments and Organizations in Establishing Human Rights: It is hoped that the Government of Bangladesh has taken some steps to protect human rights. Education, health and medicine are among them. Articles 26-48 of the constitution recognize the guarantee of basic human rights. Besides, various NGOs are working to protect the rights of the people. They have been operating privately in the country since the 80's.
Struggle for the establishment of human rights in Bangladesh: Corruption has spread in every field of politics, economy, social and state of this country. In the midst of militarism, voting in voterless polling stations, violence of black money, political instability, etc., various non-governmental organizations and governmental efforts are being made to establish human rights. Despite hundreds of adversities, organizations like Sujan, Law and Arbitration Center are working to establish human rights. The Government of Bangladesh has formed the National Human Rights Commission on September 1, 2008 to officially protect human rights.
Conclusion: Human rights can be established in the country and in the world only with the cooperation, tolerance and brotherhood of each other holding democratic and human values. The protection of human rights is essential for the proper establishment of the rights of the oppressed people of the world by wiping away their tears. Only then will peace, harmony be established in the whole world, the country will move forward, the world and human civilization will move forward