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Hunting is defined as what is caught by fish, birds, and beasts. As for the term, it is the catch and killing of birds and wild animals using various tools, including a bow, arrow, firearms, hunting dogs, or falcons, while the relationship between the animal is called food. Meat (predator) that hunts another animal ( prey ) to devour it by predation, as this practice is an important part of the food chain and web in different ecosystems. Examples of predatory animals are foxes and snakes. As for prey, it may be an insect, a spider, or a bird. Or rabbit, or another animal.
Hunting animals is one of the oldest human practices, and it was aimed at obtaining meat as a source of food, and leather for making clothes, bones, hooves, and horns for use in various industries, and stones and sticks. , Bows, arrows, loops, traps, traps, and baits, as he began using dogs for hunting at the beginning of the Neolithic period, then horses in the second millennium B.C., and after the development of agriculture, hunters continued hunting, but mainly for other purposes, including gaining status and prestige And the preservation of traditions.
Recreational hunting - as a form of sport - at the beginning of its appearance was limited to rulers and nobles, and it was appreciated by the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Greeks, but the Romans did not see in it a suitable sport for rulers, so its practice was limited to professional hunters, and later on it became permissible for all, and increased Spending on the acquisition of hunting dogs and falcons, and it is worth noting that hunting was not limited to men only, but also European women were famous for their skill with it, and with the beginning of the use of firearms, hunters were able to hunt animals in greater numbers and at further distances, which necessitated the drafting of agreements to keep the expansion in Hunting is under control.
The following shows the most important methods of hunting:
This method is used for hunting in open places in which both the hunter and the prey can see each other, and therefore the hunter adopts a strategy of slow stalking of prey, taking into account the use of any cover provided by the environment to stay out of the sight of the animal that is chasing him And in this case, one must observe the direction of the wind so that the smell of the hunter does not reach the prey.
Hunters use sneaking to hunt in places where there are dense trees, so the hunter walks slowly, and with deliberate steps, to avoid trampling the leaves and branches of trees, so as not to attract the attention of the prey, and the hunter spends 90% of his time watching And listening, so it cannot travel more than 91 meters per hour.
It is a method used to hunt large animals that live in a herd such as elephants, by tracking their effects on the ground, especially if the ground is soft.
This method is used when the prey is in a place with dense trees and the hunter cannot reach it. People who frighten animals to leave their places, and when hunting birds, sticks can be used.
This method depends on the animals attracted by the sounds issued by the fishermen, and examples of this tradition of sound issued by the female deer in mating season to attract males.
It is a popular method of hunting, as the hunter hides inside a blind or hideout, and in some cases this cache provides the advantage of reducing the smell of the hunter about the prey, silencing the sounds, and the hunter waits in it until the prey passes and hunts it with his weapon.
Hunting using dogs:
Some hunters use dogs to hunt foxes, deer, and rabbits, and the dog may follow the prey either by smell or sight, and from these dogs locates the prey and takes it out of its place to direct it to the place of the hunter, and some of it retrieves and retrieves the birds caught by the hunter and falls Away from him.
The term “fishing” is applied to the practice of fishing and other aquatic animals, including oysters, squids, octopuses, turtles, frogs, and some marine invertebrates, with the aim of eating, entertainment, or trade, while the term Whaling on the practice of hunting marine mammals of all kinds, including whales, and shows what follows some of the fishing methods:
Fishing by Hand:
Some fishermen can catch all kinds of fish with their hands, such as trout.
Dredging is done using a fishing boat equipped with a shovel made of the net that extends on the seafloor and is used to catch oysters and scallops, a practice that is devastating to the marine environment.
Fishing with a fishing line:
The fishing line is a fishing line made of various materials, including polymer, and at its end, there is a hook that penetrates the parts of the fish's mouth when it bites it.
Fishing with a kite:
A kite made of industrial materials and equipped with a line and a hook is used to fish, and this method is useful for fishermen who do not own boats, or those who want to fish in places where movement is not safe, such as shallow waters and coral reefs.
They are nets made of thin and strong threads such as nylon strings, and they have different sizes and patterns and are used to surround the fish, then catch them as soon as they are pulled.
Hole fishing in the ice:
A technique practiced by fishermen in cold or continental climates to fish with hooks and lines through a hole in the ice.
Hunting using traps and traps:
There are two types of hunting traps, the first is permanent or semi-permanent traps that are placed in the river or tidal areas, examples of which are stone walls built through water channels, which are equipped with a net placed on an opening in the wall, and the second type are traps that are shaped like A box built of wood or interlocking wire, in which the bait is placed to attract fish, and it has a complex entrance, which makes the animal's exit much more difficult than entering it, an example of which is used to catch lobsters and crabs.
Hunting with the help of an animal:
An example is the use of some birds to catch fish, taking into account preventing them from swallowing fish, by placing a metal ring around their neck.
Some fishermen use a traditional spear to catch fish in shallow waters, while divers use an upgraded spear to catch fish in deeper waters.
It is defined as the collection or illegal fishing of animals and fish, and from places where these practices are particularly prohibited, such as reserves and national parks. Many wild species around the world, it has already led to the extinction and loss of large numbers of them.
Among the animals most vulnerable to illegal hunting are the rhino that is hunted for its horn, the African elephant that is hunted for ivory, and the scaly ant that is hunted to obtain scales, skin, and other parts of the body for use in traditional medicine, and to overcome this problem And combating illegal hunting, countries around the world have begun to establish programs to conserve wildlife and to employ observers and guard patrols to protect them from illegal hunting.
The activation of international agreements such as the International Trade Agreement for Endangered Species (CITES) has reduced the incentives for illegal hunting, by organizing Worldwide trade in wild animals and plant species.