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The Future of Technology: Will Quantum Computers Be Usable

We are slowly moving towards the top of current technology. This has greatly reduced the rate of innovation of some technologies. Among them, innovation in computing technology is perhaps the slowest, and Moore's formula is already approaching. As a result, technologists and researchers have to find another way. The death of Moore's formula leads us to the idea of another world. That is the quantum world, which has made our current computing world a laughing stock. Will this world of infinite possibilities come to our real life? This article will discuss the future and possibilities of quantum computer.

The way the quantum world works

Our current computer chips are made with very simple components. In short, an electronic chip is made up of modules, the modules are made with a logic gate, and the transistor is at the core of the logic gate. The languages of a transistor are 0 and 1, they are called bits. A transistor can carry only one value at a time (0 or 1). These transistors combine to form logic gates, which also perform simple functions such as addition and multiplication with the help of these bits.

Thus a transistor performs mathematical calculations. This means that the more transistors we make into a chip, the more complex mathematical problems we can solve. At present a chip can contain billions of transistors, and these transistors tell which way the electron or electricity should go and which way is closed for it.

The transistors on a computer chip can be compared to the big buildings in Dhaka city. Suppose there is a distance of 14 nanometers between one building and another in an area of Dhaka city, as a result of which the people of the building cannot jump from the roof of one building to the roof of another building. But as this distance decreases, the chances of being able to go will increase, and it will be possible to reduce it at some point. In reality, such a relationship between two buildings can start a love affair, but if it happens on an electronic chip, then the whole system will collapse. This condition is called quantum tunneling, and this is where the concept of the quantum chip comes in. In the quantum world physics works differently and our conventional chips lose their meaning.

There was talk of bits in the beginning. Whatever we do with the electronic chip is converted to 0, 1, and each transistor carries a value. In the quantum world there are Qubits, which, as usual, can run with these two values 0 and 1. However, its value is not determined by the flow of electrons as usual, it is determined by the spin or photon (particle of light) of the electron.

Concepts of electrons and photons; Image Source; Scitech daily

The use of spin or photons by electrons gives rise to a specialty in the quantum chip, the quantum super position, which is why quantum computers have distinguished themselves from everyone else.

The greatness of quantum superposition

The ‘bit’ i.e. ‘qubit’ of the quantum world works differently. As mentioned earlier, a transistor on a simple chip can run on only one value at the same time, but a quantum chip can run on two values at the same time. This is called superposition.

Let's think about a five rupee coin toss. If the coin is tossed, we will either get Shapla or Jamuna Bridge. But as long as the coin keeps spinning in the air it can be two values until it stops, and as long as we see it it will be between an uncertainty and a possibility.

This is the quantum superposition and that is why quantum computers are so powerful. Let's take the help of a maze to make the idea clearer.

Suppose a simple computer is inserted into a maze to find a way out. So what will it do? You and I will go to all the streets and see which way out. But quantum computers can enter all the streets at once. Chances are it's just a game.

Common and quantum computers to solve maze; Image Souce: Cadence

Quantum Entanglement: Unsolved Surprise

Qubit can do one more thing, which is quantum entanglement. Let's take the matter of coin toss, if the lily rises after the toss, then we will understand that there is a Jamuna bridge on the opposite side. If you send a pair of socks in a briefcase to a friend in London and another to Antarctica, and your friend opens and sees that there are right foot socks, then without opening another briefcase, it is known that the left foot sock is in Antarctica. In the quantum world, two bits are connected to each other in a mysterious way.

The concept of quantum entanglement; Image Souce: MarkhayesBlog

If two electrons are connected by quantum entanglement and the rotation of one is clockwise, the rotation of the other must be counterclockwise. Now if the rotation of one can be reversed by force by applying external force and if the other is also on the moon, its rotation will be opposite to the first. That is, if we know the value of one, we can find out the value of the other without seeing it. In this way, Quantum Computer has been created by combining Quantum Superposition and Entanglement.

Scientists are still trying to figure out how quantum entanglement works. But the main wonder of the quantum world is that it can work with possibilities and stay in superposition. Quantum chips are made with quantum gates.

Quantum Gate; Image Source: kurzgesagt in a nutshell

If we input two values into our current logic gate, it will give a value by calculating, the quantum gate will calculate it with one possibility and give another possibility, which will be in superposition. It will give the correct answer whenever we want output.

What is the function of quantum computer?

Quantum computers do not mean that any work will be too fast or cost-effective. Quantum computers will help us do things we never thought possible. Quantum computers can do things that even supercomputers can't do.

The potential of quantum computers; Image Source: Pinterest

Quantum computers will play a huge role in the advancement of artificial intelligence. Google is already developing their software and driverless vehicles with the help of Quantum computers. How do we get so many results in less than a second when we search on Google?

As long as it takes to solve something on a normal computer, it will take a square-root (√) amount of time with a quantum computer. There is also the use of quantum computers in the organization and possibilities of precise chemical reactions. Simple chemical reactions are tested with current supercomputers, but quantum computers can solve complex equations in no time. In this we can easily get not only affordable chemical products, but also medicines for many complex diseases.

Google's Quantum Computer; Image Source: The New York Times

Quantum computers do the simplest thing that our current supercomputers take the most time to do, which is to determine future possibilities. These include economic markets, weather messages, solving all the complex equations of physics and all the other exciting things.

Quantum computers, however, can instantly break the data encryption system, which is both a negative and a positive. Data encryption is used to protect every important thing in today's world. It generates a public key and a private key in each encryption, and this public key is used to recognize the encryption of the file, but it can also extract the private key to decrypt the file.

Encryption and decryption; Image Source: Researchgate

It will take years to do this on a normal computer, but a Quantum computer will take a few minutes! Now just as it can bring down our current IT system, no one can break the encryption key created by Quantum Computer, not even Quantum Computer!

When will we get a quantum computer?

The answer is "no, maybe never". Quantum computers have been studied for decades, but the reason they are so slow is that they are very sensitive to the external environment. In order to keep it in superposition, it has to be kept below freezing point and free from all electronic barriers. Quantum computers are not designed to play games. Its main field is in various types of business and research. However, more time is needed to achieve the full potential of a quantum computer.

Currently the most powerful quantum computer has 53 qubits, which belongs to Google. In a paper published by Google in October 2019, they said that they have solved a problem that would have taken 10,000 years to solve with the best super computer of today.

Quantum computers have opened the door to our unimaginable possibilities. However, it will take many more years and scientists are still working tirelessly. Needless to say, this technology of the future is capable of giving us a fascinating experience.