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Sundarbans, The Largest Mangrove Forest in The World 

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The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world. The total area of ​​the Sundarbans is 10,000 sq km, of this, the area of ​​Bangladesh. We all know this information about the Sundarbans. Many of us do not know more than this but our country is world-famous as one of the most beautiful places in the world. So today I will try to present some basic and interesting information about Sundarbans.

Naming:

In Bengali, "Sundarbans" literally means "beautiful jungle" or "beautiful forest". The Sundarbans may have been named after the Sundari tree, which grows abundantly there. Other possible explanations may be that it is named after the "sea forest" (ancient aborigines). However, it is generally believed that the Sundarbans is named after the Sundari tree.

Geographical structure:

The vast majority of the Sundarbans (82%) across the two neighboring countries of Bangladesh and India is located in the south-west of Bangladesh. Bay of Bengal to the south; It is bounded on the east by the Baleshwar river and on the north by land with higher cultivation density. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the size of the Sundarbans was almost double that of today. The increasing human pressure on the forest has gradually reduced its size. At present its total land area in Bangladesh is 4,143 sq km. And the rest of the watershed, including rivers and canals, covers an area of ​​1,84 sq. Km. . The rivers of the Sundarbans are the meeting place of salt water and fresh water. So this area is in the middle of the fresh water of the river coming from the Ganges, becoming the salt water of the Bay of Bengal. It is present in Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Patuakhali region in Bangladesh.

The muddy soil of the Sundarbans after ebb

Diversity of plants:

The main forest diversity of the Sundarbans includes Sundari, Gewa, Garan and Keora. According to a report published in 1903, there are a total of 245 classes and 334 species of plants.

Golpata tree

Since this report there have been significant changes in the various mangrove species and their classification. Very little research has been done in forest nature to keep track of these changes. Grasses and shrubs include seaweed, reed, reed, etc. Keora refers to the newly formed silt and this species is essential for wildlife, especially chitra deer.

Biodiversity:

Extensive biodiversity exists in the Sundarbans. Biodiversity conservation management has banned hunting in some areas of the Sundarbans, which has resulted in unrestricted collection of forest resources and slight disruption to wildlife life. However, it is clear that Bangladesh's animal resources have declined in recent times, and the Sundarbans is no exception. Even then, the Sundarbans has preserved many animal species and other related species. Among these, tigers and dolphins are being planned with priority. The ecosystem of the Sundarbans is of a basic nature and is a huge habitat for wildlife. Turtles, chameleons, pythons and the Royal Bengal Tiger are some of the endemic species of the Sundarbans. Some species of deer, buffalo, rhinoceros and crocodile have become rare in the Sundarbans since the beginning of the 21st century.

Chitra deer

The Sundarbans of Bangladesh is home to 120 commercially important species of fish, 260 species of birds, 42 species of mammals, 35 species of reptiles and 6 species of amphibians. This suggests that a large number of different species exist in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh (e.g. 30 percent reptiles, 36 percent birds and 36 percent mammals). The Sundarbans is a paradise for ornithologists to observe, study and research about birds.

Crocodile

Royal Bengal Tiger:

The Royal Bengal Tiger of the Sundarbans is world-famous. As of 2004, the Sundarbans is home to about 500 Royal Bengal Tigers, the single largest of the tigers. But the number of these tigers is decreasing day by day. According to a 2011 report, the total number of tigers in the Sundarbans is currently around 300. The Wildlife Conservation Committee has taken various difficult steps to protect them.

These tigers are also widely known for killing an average of 30 to 100 people each year. However, due to various security measures, not a single death was reported in the Indian tiger's Sundarbans. Locals and government officials have taken various security measures to prevent tiger attacks. Local fishermen perform the prayers and religious rites of the forest goddess or forest goddess before the start of the journey. It is also important for the local people to pray to the tiger god for safe roaming in the Sundarbans. Since tigers always attack from behind, fishermen and woodcutters wear masks behind their heads. Although this system worked for a short time, the tiger later understood the strategy and started attacking again. Government officials wear pads like the pads of American football players that cover the back of the neck. This is done to prevent tiger bites on the spine which is their preferred attack strategy.

Royal Bengal Tiger

Here are some possible reasons why these tigers attack humans

Since the Sundarbans is located in the coastal area, the water here is relatively salty. Among other animals, tigers eat sweet water. Some people think that this salinity of drinking water makes tigers uncomfortable all the time which makes them widely aggressive. There was no solution to this by creating an artificial freshwater lake.

The high waves remove the odor from the tiger's skin, which actually acts as a boundary marker for the tiger's roaming area. As a result, there is only one way for a tiger to protect its territory, and that is to block anything that enters its territory.

Another possibility is that they have become accustomed to human flesh due to the weather. Thousands died in the floods in Bangladesh and India. And the tiger eats these molten corpses that are swept away by the current.

Another possibility is that regular tidal currents and slippery areas make it difficult to hunt tigers. In comparison, people who collect fish and honey across the Sundarbans find it easier to hunt, so they prefer to hunt people. It is also believed that when a person stops working, the tiger attacks him thinking he is an animal.

It is also thought that habitat isolation has changed the tiger's hunting habits in the region over the 20th century. While tiger fears are on the rise in the rest of Asia, tigers in the Sundarbans may not stop preying on humans.

Fisheries Resources:

No previous scientific research has been done on the overall fish in the Sundarbans. As a result, data on the current status of fish, extinct fish, endangered fish is not available. Only fish that people eat and fish that are suitable for export have been identified. It is estimated that there are about 300 species of vertebrates in the Sundarbans. Fisheries in the Sundarbans are divided into two parts. All the fish are white fish, the rest are bagda, galda, crab.

After shrimp fry started being caught in the eighties, the abundance of fish suddenly decreased. At one time, 70 percent of the local animal protein metato fish. Now very few people in the area have the good fortune to eat fish. In the Sundarbans, black shark, ilsha kamat, thunti kamat and kanua kamat are found. Earlier they could be found up to Khalishpur area, now they have moved far to the south. They are more prevalent in the western Sundarbans. They have decreased in number, especially the black sharks are almost invisible.

Shark fish

At one time the very name of Java fish could be heard, they are 55 cm long. The burden seen now. Very tasty fish like Payratali or Chitra is rarely caught in the nets of fishermen nowadays. Up to 18 cm long, this fish was found in abundance all over the forest. Very few are still available. Parshai's cousin broke the bata. Bhangan, Gul Bata, Kharul Bhangan are rarely caught nowadays. Kharshula or Khalla is a very tasty fish; They are no longer seen in the rivers and canals of the forest. There is a deadly poison in the thorns next to the deadly fish Kan Magur. Although the big ear magur is still found, the tainted ear magur is now almost extinct. There are also many other species of fish, most of which are extinct.

There are currently 13 types of fishing in the Sundarbans. Seedlings and fish eggs are severely damaged as the holes in the push nets and rocket nets are very small. Fisheries are declining rapidly due to the increase in fishing in the Sundarbans. However, the application of poison kills the fish the most damage. Most of the locals make a living by fishing.

Economy

The population of the Sundarbans is over 4 million. But most of it is not a permanent population. The Sundarbans plays an important role in the national economy as well as in the economy of the south-western region of Bangladesh. It is the single largest source of forest resources in the country. These forests provide raw materials for timber dependent industries.

The forest is regularly used for extraction of house leaves, honey, beeswax, fish, crabs and snails. This lush land of the Sundarbans is simultaneously an essential habitat, nutrient producer, water purifier, sediment collector, storm repellent, coastal stabilizer, energy resource reservoir and tourist destination.

Beautiful tree

These forests play a very preventive and productive role. The Sundarbans contributes about 41 per cent of the total forest revenue and 51 per cent to timber and fuel production in 51 per cent of Bangladesh's protected forests (WFP, 1995). Many industries (such as newsprint, matches, hardboard, boats, furniture) depend on raw materials extracted from the Sundarbans. Various non-timber resources and forestry have created significant employment and income opportunities for at least three lakh coastal populations. In addition to its productive role, the Sundarbans plays a role as a natural safety net for the coastal population of cyclone-prone Bangladesh and their resources.

It is understood that the role of the Sundarbans is not limited to beauty, forest resources, employment, diversity of animals and plants, fisheries resources, supply of raw materials for various industries, maintaining natural balance, protection from various adverse weather conditions, etc. For the development of us and our country, the people of this country should pay more attention to the conservation of forest resources and wildlife in the Sundarbans. The way in which its various forest resources and the various species of animals, birds and fish living in it are becoming extinct is a serious threat to our country and a matter of shame.

We have the practice of this forest all over the world, thousands of people come from abroad to see the Sundarbans every year, and we are not able to properly preserve this invaluable resource. In particular, the government of our country should tighten and tighten the law on conservation of forest resources and wildlife. And those of us who visit the Sundarbans should also be careful that we do not do any harm to its forest resources and wildlife by making fun of it; We can warn others about this because every year many animals and birds die because of this

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